Papers by Keyword: FIB

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Authors: Shan Shan Cao, Wim Tirry, Wouter Van den Broek, D. Schryvers
Abstract: Ni4Ti3 precipitates play an important role in the shape memory and superelastic behaviour of thermo-mechanically treated Ni-Ti material. The 3D morphology and distribution of such precipitates with lenticular shape and rhombohedral atomic structure in the austenitic B2 matrix of a binary Ni-rich Ni-Ti alloy has been elucidated via a slice & view procedure in a Dual-Beam FIB/SEM system. With the sequence of cross-section SE images obtained from the SEM, a 3D reconstruction has been achieved after proper alignment and image processing, from which both qualitative and quantitative analysis can be performed. Careful imaging is needed to ensure that all variants of the precipitates are observed with equal probability, regardless sample orientation. Moreover, due to the weak contrast of the precipitates, proper imaging conditions need to be selected to allow for semi-automated image treatment. Finally, a volume ratio of 10.2% for the Ni4Ti3 precipitates could be calculated, summed over all variants, which yields a net composition of Ni50.36Ti49.64 for the matrix, leading to an increase of 113 degrees for the martensitic start temperature Ms. Also, the expected relative orientation of the different variants of the precipitates could be confirmed. In the near future, other quantitative measures on the distribution of the precipitates can be expected.
Authors: Ali Gholinia, Ian Brough, John F. Humphreys, Pete S. Bate
Abstract: A combination of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and focused ion beam (FIB) techniques were used to obtain 3D EBSD data in an investigation of dynamic recrystallization in a Cu-2%Sn bronze alloy. The results of this investigation show the origin of the nucleation sites for dynamic recrystallization and also elucidates the orientation relationship of the recrystallized grains to the deformed, prior grains and between the dynamically recrystallized grains.
Authors: Harini Sosiati, Satoshi Hata, Toshiya Doi
Abstract: A focused ion beam (FIB) mill equipped with a microsampling (MS) unit and combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/scanning TEM-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDXS) is a powerful tool for studies of the functional advanced materials. For the studies, the specimen must be prepared as a thin foil which is tranparent to the electron beam. Focused ion beam is very effective method for fabricating TEM specimen of the cross-sectional thin film with the “lift-out” technique using a tungsten (W)-needle probe as a micromanipulator. A multilayer film of MgB2/Ni deposited on a Si (001) substrate prepared by FIB-MS technique is presented. Before FIB fabrication, the surface of the multilayer film was coated with W-film to prevent the surface from bombardment by the ion beam. A bright field (BF)-STEM image of the multilayer film related to two-dimensional (2D) elemental mapping clearly showed the presence of MgB2-and Ni-nanolayers. The measured experimental spacing between Ni-nanolayers was comparable with the actual specimen design, but the thickness of Ni-nanolayer was not. Unexpected nanostructures of the formation of SiO2 film on the substrate surface and holes within the film were observed.
Authors: Hideki Matsushima, Toshiaki Suzuki, Takeshi Nokuo
Abstract: Functions of an observation and an analysis in electron microscope, such as scanning electron microscope (SEM) or transmission electron microscope (TEM) are indispensable to evaluate advanced materials. Therefore a specimen preparation technique, that is a front end of the electron microscopy, has become highly important, thus a choice of it affects a result of the evaluation. The authors was combined a cooling stage in FIB and applied it for evaluation of metals with low melting point. The electron microscopic evaluation of Lead solder, Indium, Tin and Bismuth, metals with low melting point, has been always discussed if the results represent the actual physics. Metals with low melting point are heat sensitive materials, so the comparison of cross-sectioning with room and low temperature, it can be said that low temperature cross-sectioning has less effect and keeps the actual physics of the sample. In this paper, some knowledge from comparisons of cross-sectioning with room and low temperature for metals with low melting point are reported.
Authors: Ivanilto Andreolli, L. de A. Bernardo, M.W. Tocantins, R.H. Ruschel
Abstract: This study presents an analytical model for assessing reinforced simply supported beams based on recommendations of the Brazilian Concrete Norm (NBR-6118) and a study published by the International Federation of Concrete (fib). Rectangular and “T” sections are only considered in this study. The beam’s deformation depicted the diagram of moment curvature in regard with the limits of materials deformation in the elastic state is also explored. The results obtained by both Norms were complement with each other, revealing great similarity. Furthermore, destructive tests of reinforced beams made in the laboratory were compared with those obtained by the analytical model, showing excellent performance of the proposed model. The objective of this publication is the presentation of the analytical model. Analysis of comparing the results between the analytical model and from field tests were presented in another publication that will be mentioned in this study.
Authors: N. Atiqah, I.H. Jaafar, Mohammad Yeakub Ali, B. Asfana
Abstract: Fabrication of micro and nanoscale components are in high demand for various applications in diversified fields that include automotive, electronics, communication and medicine. Focused ion beam (FIB) machining is one of the techniques for microfabrication of micro devices. This paper presents a review of FIB machining technology that include its parameter, responses, its important component systems, as well as the fundamentals of imaging, milling (etching) and deposition techniques. The application of FIB in micromachining is also presented.
Authors: Stefan Zaefferer
Abstract: Orientation microscopy in TEM and SEM is a particularly well suited tool to study recrystallisation processes because these are always associated with orientation and microstructure changes. The present work discusses the possibilities and limits of the TEM and SEM based techniques and illustrates their use by means of 3 different examples. The examples include studies on nucleation mechanisms of primary recrystallisation where the techniques meet their limits in spatial resolution. The problem of in-situ observations of annealing processes is discussed and it is shown how recrystallisation simulation techniques based on experimental data may be used. Furthermore the new technique of 3-dimensional EBSD in a focused-ion-beam (FIB) SEM is presented with one example. Finally, the statistical analysis of very large orientation data sets is discussed by an example of secondary recrystallisation in electrical steels.
Authors: Hakan Engqvist, Tobias Jarmar, Fredrik Svahn, Leif Hermansson, Peter Thomsen
Abstract: A key feature in the understanding of the mechanisms of integration of implant materials is a deepened in-sight of the elemental and molecular composition of the interface zone between the implant and tissue. To analyze the interface at the ultrastructural level, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is needed. However, techniques to fabricate thin foils for TEM are difficult and time consuming. By using focused ion beam microscopy (FIB) for site-specific preparation of TEM-samples, intact interfaces between bioceramics and calcified tissue can be prepared. The site-specific accuracy of the technique is about 1 mm. By using a dual-beam FIB, which is a combined scanning electron and focused ion beam microscope, the sample can be imaged with both electrons and ions (generating both secondary electrons and ions). Results from interface studies between Ca-aluminate based orthopaedic cement, dental materials, HA-coated Ti-implants and bone are presented. The interfaces were imaged in scanning-TEM and bright field mode, the crystal structures were determined using electron diffraction and elemental composition analyzed with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The technique fulfils a demand to correlate the surface properties of bioceramic implants with the structure and composition of preserved interfaces with tissues.
Authors: Antoine Gueydan, Eric Hug
Abstract: X-Ray analysis was performed on copper-clad aluminum wires at 423 K and 673 K to follow their microstructural evolution and understand their strain behavior under creep deformation, potential operating load in automotive industry. The lifetime of the wires is found to be strongly dependent on the existence of an initial heat treatment and on the applied stress. Annealed drawn wires verify a traditional Norton law in the overall range of the stress level. Raw drawn wires exhibit a distinct two stage behavior with a breakdown around an applied stress of 0.7 times the yield stress. It is shown in this work that the intermetallic compounds between copper and aluminum play only the role of a mechanical bounding without affecting the strain rate of the wires.
Authors: Katsumi Watanabe, Kenji Matsuda, Tokimasa Kawabata, Susumu Ikeno
Abstract: Magnesium alloys have received considerable attention because of their lightweight and recyclability. AM-series and AZ-series Mg-Al alloys have been used for industrial products widely, particularly for AM-series alloys because of better toughness and impact absorption properties than AZ-series alloys. The Mg17Al12 intermetallic compound is the only precipitate formed during ageing after the solution heart treatment. Discontinuous precipitates exist in grain boundary randomly, and continuous precipitates exist in the matrix. However, there is few report about the orientation relationship between the discontinuous precipitates and the matrix. The purpose of this study is to investigate the orientation relationship between the discontinuous precipitates and the matrix of AM-series magnesium alloys. Hardness measurement, SEM observation, the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) techniques were preformed in order to understand the relationship between the discontinuous precipitate and crystallographic orientation of grains in AM-series magnesium alloy. TEM samples with discontinuous precipitates were prepared using the focused ion beam (FIB). And TEM observation was performed to investigate the discontinuous precipitates and crystallographic orientation in the matrix.
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