Papers by Keyword: Flame Retardance

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Authors: Fang Xu, Feng Xiu Zhang, Gang Xian Zhang, Yuan Song Zhang
Abstract: In this paper, the flame retardant HAS was applied to imparting flame retardance to polyester fabric. The result showed that the flame retardance of polyester fabric improved a lot. The limiting oxygen index increased while the concentration of HAS solution and temperature increased. Whiteness and elastic recovery angle decreased while the concentration of HAS solution increased. Found a good match to the concentration and temperature, the limiting oxygen index could increase to 29% while whiteness and elastic recovery angle kept well.
Authors: Xue Qing Liu, Heng Zhou, Ji Yan Liu, Hao Wang, Shao Jun Cai
Abstract: The influence of silica on the mechanical properties, thermal stability and the flammability of epoxy (EP) blended with aluminum methylethylphosphinate (Al (MEP) has been studied by the limiting oxygen index (LOI), UL-94 test, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that adding silica enhances the mechanical properties of EP/Al (MEP). Synergistic effects between Al (MEP) and silica are obtained leading to the increase of LOI and to the reduction of combustion time. The TGA data demonstrate that silica can enhance the thermal stability of the EP/Al (MEP) and increase the char residue formation at high temperature. When the rice husk silica is substituted for silica, the composite presents lower LOI, lower thermal stability and char formation as well as inferior mechanical strength. The SEM results indicate that rice husk silica based composite shows poorer fillermatrix adhesion, which will be responsible for its inferior mechanical properties, lower thermal stability and flammability.
Authors: Marta Martins, Celeste M.C. Pereira
Abstract: In this work the effect of nano-magnesium hydroxide (nano-Mg(OH)2) on the flammability of epoxy composites is presented and compared with the traditional flame retardant used in just small amounts for epoxy resins, ammonium polyphosphate (APP). The fire reaction properties of epoxy composites were obtained by cone calorimeter tests. It was observed that the flammability of the unfilled resin is significantly changed with nano-Mg(OH)2 addition and reductions of 33, 22 and 23% in the epoxy composite heat release rate peak (PHRR) by incorporating 10%, 5 % and 1% of nano-Mg(OH)2, respectively, were achieved. Cone calorimeter analyses confirm the better behavior of APP composites compared with nano-Mg(OH)2 composites. SEM micrographs show some agglomerations on the distribution of nano-Mg(OH)2 in the epoxy matrix.
Authors: Li Yong Jiao, Zheng Jie Wu
Abstract: The influence of alkali lignin (AL) as a carbonization agent on the thermal degradation and flame retardancy of intumescent flame retardant (IFR) coating was investigated under air condition, with ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as an acid source, and melamine (MEL) as a blowing agent. Compared with a traditional APP/pentaerythritol (PER) /MEL IFR system, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results showed that APP/AL/MEL IFR system could induce the synergistic effect at a much boarder temperature range, and improve the thermal stabilities of the IFR coating. With the increase of AL loading, cone calorimeter test showed the peak heat release rate of the IFR coatings decreased from 54.86 MJ/m2 to 41.06 MJ/m2 .
Authors: Yu Bo Chai, Jun Liang Liu, Zhen Xing
Abstract: In this study, Melamine-methanol-formaldehyde-urea (MMFU) resin and the mixture of MMFU/boric acid/borax (MBB) were used as the modification solutions to impregnate wood from poplar plantation. The combustion performance of the wood before and after impregnation treatment was investigated by using the oxygen index apparatus and cone calorimeter. Results showed that the oxygen index of the MMFU and MBB treated wood both increased. Compared with the untreated wood, the MMFU and MBB treatment significantly delayed the ignition time and the appearance of peak value of the heat release rate (HRR) during the combustion. The MMFU and MBB treatment also reduced the heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR), mass loss rate (MLR), generation rate of carbon monoxide (GCO) as well as total smoke release (TSR) significantly. Both MMFU and MBB exhibited good effect of smoke suppression on wood, while MBB had better flame retardancy than MMFU. Boric acid/borax exerted excellent synergistic effect of fire resistance on MMFU.
Authors: Jun Ying Zhang, Jun Ma, Xiang Hong Li, Hai Wen Liu
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is the development of flame retardant chef coats fabric. The main properties of polysulfonamide fiber are described , the research and development of the product processing of polysulfonamide /Aramid 1313 blended yarn and the union fabric with it and cotton yarn are explored. The technology problems of spinning and weaving are solved. The mechanical property , comfort property and flame retardance of the fabric of polysulfonamide /Aramid 1313 blended yarn and cotton yarn are qualified .The product can be used for high grade chef coats fabric.
Authors: Yu Gui Liu, Yuan Lin Ren, Er Ying Dong
Abstract: Wood-plastic composites (WPC), a fast growing class of material used by the furniture and building industry for its excellent mechanical performance and functionality. However, WPC is easily combust because the raw material of it, i.e. wood and plastic burns so easily which result in more fire dangers of WPC. Unfortunately, in the case of WPC, few researchers have carried out to reduce its flammability which still has a long way to go. In this paper, the current development of halogen-free flame retardant WPC at domestic and abroad was reviewed. Especially, the fire retarded WPC with phosphorus, nitrogen, boron, silicon and other flame retardant elements, the fire retarded mechanism, the problems, such as poor compatability, bad resistance to heat and limitation of wood adding quantity, and the solution to the problems were emphasized.
Authors: F. Zandi, M. Rezaei, A. Kasiri
Abstract: Novel noncross-linked low density polyethylene (LDPE) foams were produced by extrusion process. In this study the effects of Organophilic Montmorillonite (OMMT) nanoclay (DK1) on thermal conductivity, flame retardancy, morphological and mechanical properties of LDPE foams have been investigated. Nanoclay dispersion in LDPE foam structure was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), microstructure was observed by an optical microscope and analyzed by Bel View image analyzer, thermal conductivity was studied by a simple transient method, mechanical properties was investigated using a tensile-compression Zwick-Roell machine as well as the flame retardancy of the samples was examined by flammability test. The optimum nanoclay content was determined by comparison of the properties in nanocomposite and neat LDPE foams. Due to the presence of nanoclay in the foam and decreasing the cell nucleation energy around the nanoclay, the average cell size was decreased as well as the cell density and microstructure uniformity was increased. In XRD patterns of LDPE nanocomposite foams, OMMT (DK1) characteristic peak was not observed as evidence of nanoclay intercalation-exfoliation in the polymer matrix, which led to the production of foams with homogenous microstructure. Furthermore, this nanocomposites showed lower thermal conductivity compared to neat LDPE foam, which can be attributed to the cell size reduction as well as narrow cell size distribution in nanocomposite foams. Compression test results demonstrated that LDPE nanocomposite foams with proper clay contents have improved mechanical properties (Young’s modulus, compressive strength). Furthermore due to the presence of DK1 nanoclay, LDPE foam showed a good char formation as an evidence of their flame retardancy.
Authors: Dong Mei Xu, Quan Ji, Feng Yu Quan, Xiao Mei Ma, Yan Zhi Xia
Abstract: Flame retardance and thermal degradation of CMC-Na fibers were investigated using limiting oxygen index (LOI), thermal gravimetry (TG), differential TG (DTG) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The LOI values of different CMC-Na fibers are 23, 26, 28.5, 31 and 34, compared with about 20 for viscose fiber. TG and DTG studies indicate that the temperature of maximum degradation rate and the maximum degradation rate for CMC-Na fibers are much lower than those of viscose fiber. However, CMC-Na fibers generate much more residues or carbonaceous char than does viscose fiber. The increase of sodium ion content, the carbon residual also increases. SEM studies of combustion residues after LOI testing indicate that all CMC-Na fibers produce intumescent, hard and brittle residue crusts.
Authors: Dong Mei Bao, Ji Ping Liu, Xiang Yang Hao
Abstract: The organically modified montmorrillonite (OMMT)/phosphorus polymeic flame retardant (PFR)/polyamide 6(PA6) nanocomposites were prepared via melt intercalation on a twin-screw extruder. The structure formed in nanocomposite system was investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Properties such as flame retardancy, notched impact strength, tensile strength, elongation at break and flexural modulus were studied by limited oxygen index (LOI) approach, UL94, and mechanical property test. The results of the studies indicated that flame retardancy and mechanical properties of PA6 nanocomposites were all reinforced due to addition of OMMT and PFR.
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