Papers by Keyword: Flat

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Authors: C. Hérold, J.F. Marêché, A. Mabchour, G. Furdin
347
Authors: Seok Jin Kwon, Jung Won Seo, Dong Hyung Lee, Chan Woo Lee
Abstract: The majority of catastrophic wheel failures are caused by surface opening fatigue cracks either in the wheel tread or wheel flange areas. The inclined cracks at railway wheel tread are initiated and the cracks are caused by wheel damage-spalling after 60,000 km running. Because the failured railway wheel is reprofiled before regular wheel reprofiling, the maintenance cost for the railway wheel is increased. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the mechanism for introduction of crack. In the present paper, the combined effect on railway wheels of a periodically varying contact pressure and an intermittent thermal braking loading is investigated. To analyze damage cause for railway wheels, the measurements for replica of wheel surface and effect of braking application in field test are carried out. The result shows that the surface cracks in railway wheel tread are due to combination of thermal loading and ratcheting.
1047
Authors: Marijonas Bogdevicius, Rasa Zygiene, Rimantas Subacius
Abstract: Dynamic force that strains on the rail and the wheel occurs. In case of wheel flats, during wheel and rail interaction, exposure time of dynamic forces acting in contact is very short and depends on the railway vehicle speed and the length of flat.Results obtained from a method that uses mathematical model of a system “Railway Vehicle Wheel-Track” and the simplified method to determine a vertical impact force of wheel with flat and rail interaction are presented in this article.The results of the mathematical and physical results of this system are analysed and presented.
289
Authors: Chao Wu, Jing Luo
Abstract: Using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) film as cathode material, the small-area flat lamp (FL) was sealed and fabricated. And the manufacture process for the whole FL was also presented in detail. The pyrolysis process was adopted to grow CNT film directly over the silicon substrate, and the chromium was deposited on the silicon substrate back surface to form the interface layer. After the sintering process for the screen-printed silver slurry, the patterned cathode electrodes were formed on the cathode back plane surface. Using silver slurry as adhesion material, the silicon substrate would be fixed on the cathode electrode. With the splicing method, the CNT film cathode could also be extended on the flat cathode back plane surface. The fabricated small-area FL using CNT film cathode exhibited better field emission property and high luminance brightness.
1516
Authors: Seok Jin Kwon, Dong Hyung Lee, Sung Tae Kwon, Byeong Choon Goo
Abstract: The majority of catastrophic wheel failures are caused by surface opening fatigue cracks either in the wheel tread or wheel flange areas. The inclined cracks at railway wheel tread are initiated and the cracks are caused by wheel damage-spalling after 60,000 km running. Because the failured railway wheel is reprofiled before regular wheel reprofiling, the maintenance cost for the railway wheel is increased. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the mechanism for introduction of crack. In the present paper, the combined effect on railway wheels of a periodically varying contact pressure and an intermittent thermal braking loading is investigated. To analyze damage cause for railway wheels, the measurements for replica of wheel surface and effect of braking application in field test are carried out. The result shows that the surface cracks in railway wheel tread are due to combination of thermal loading and ratcheting.
649
Authors: Chun Fu Li, Hui Ting Shi, Jing Jing Huang, Lu Ying Chen
Abstract: In the modern Human-Machine interactive interface, symbol is used to express ideas, and is an important component of information visualization. By analyzing the style of interface design of "skeuomorphism" and "flat" that are two typical symbol designs, we analyze the differences between them, find out the user cases of these two symbols, and explore the future trends of the basic theories about symbol in the contemporary interactive interface. The experimental results show that skeuomorphism is different from flat in terms of five aspects including identity, interest, timeliness, familiarity, and simplicity. At last, we expect our research to provide guidance for the design of interface icons.
1659
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