Papers by Keyword: High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction (HR-XRD)

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Authors: X. Huang, Michael Dudley, W. Cho, Robert S. Okojie, Philip G. Neudeck
Authors: Sho Sasaki, Jun Suda, Tsunenobu Kimoto
Abstract: The c- and a-lattice constants of nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC were measured in the wide temperature range (RT - 1100°C). The samples used in this study were heavily doped substrates and lightly-doped free-standing epilayers. The lattice constants at room temperature are almost identical for all the samples. However, the lattice contraction by heavy nitrogen doping was clearly observed at high temperatures, which indicates that the thermal expansion coefficients are dependent on the nitrogen concentration. The lattice mismatch (Δd/d) between a lightly-doped free-standing epilayer (Nd = 6x1014 cm-3) and a heavily-doped substrate (Nd = 2x1019 cm-3) was calculated as 1.7x10-4 at 1100°C. The authors also investigated lattice constants of high-dose N+, P+, and Al+-implanted 4H-SiC. Reciprocal space mapping (RSM) was utilized to investigate the lattice mismatch and misorientation. The RSM images show the c-lattice expansion and c-axis tilt of the ion-implanted layers, irrespective of ion species. The authors conclude that the lattice expansion is not caused by heavy doping itself, but by secondary defects formed after the ion-implantation and activation-annealing process.
Authors: Pornsiri Wanarattikan, Sakuntam Sanorpim, Somyod Denchitcharoen, Kenjiro Uesugi, Takehiko Kikuchi, Shigeyuki Kuboya, Kentaro Onabe
Abstract: We have investigated an effect of N incorporation on InGaAsN on Ge (001), which is proposed to be a part of the InGaP(N)/InGaAs/InGaAsN/Ge four-junction solar cell, and on its growth behavior. Results obtained from high resolution X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering demonstrated that high quality In0.11Ga0.89As1-yNy films with N (y) contents up to 5% were successfully grown on n-type doped Ge (001) substrate by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using low-temperature (500°C) GaAs buffer layer. As expectation, the In0.11Ga0.89As0.96N0.04 film is examined to be under lattice-matching condition. Anti-phase domains were observed for the film without N incorporation, which exhibits submicron-size domains oriented along the [110] direction on the grown surface. With increasing N content, the domains become less orientation, and present in a larger domain size. Based on results of transmission electron microscopy, a high density of anti-phase domains was clearly observed at the interface of low-temperature GaAs buffer layer and Ge substrate. On the other hand, it is found to drastically reduce within the N-contained InGaAsN region. Furthermore, the lattice-matched In0.11Ga0.89As0.96N0.04 film is well developed to reduce the density of anti-phase domains.
Authors: P. Klangtakai, S. Sanorpim, S. Kuboya, R. Katayama, Kentaro Onabe
Abstract: The GaAs1-xNx alloy semiconductor has been grown on GaAs (001), (111)A and (011) substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. High resolution X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering were employed to examine the effective N content and the growth rate, as a function of the substrate-surface orientation. The growth rate, which was assessed though the clear Pendellösung fringes, and the N content were found to change dramatically with the substrate-surface orientations. The N content was determined in the order (111)A > (001) > (011). While, the growth rate is in the order, (001) > (011) > (111)A. The effect of substrate-surface orientation on the N incorporation found in the present study is interpreted in terms of the difference in the growth rate on each surface orientation and the number of dangling bonds with which the N atoms can be trapped on the growing surface. Our results show that controlled nitrogen incorporating for GaAsN is successfully achieved and can be applied to the fabrication of some novel structures such as a spontaneous N content modulated structure, which is applicable to high performance long wavelength laser diodes.
Authors: S. Hayashi, B. Poust, B. Heying, M.S. Goorsky
Authors: Didik Aryanto, Zulkafli Othaman, A. Khamim Ismail
Abstract: Stacked self-assembled In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) were grown using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XDR) show the effects of stacking on morphology and structure of QDs. Strains due to the buried QDs affect the shape and alignment of the successive layers. Capping of these QDs also determine the quality of the top most QDs structure.
Authors: Hind I. Abdulgafour, Yushamdan Yusof, F.K. Yam, Hassan Zainuriah
Abstract: In this study, an efficient method to achieve a wide range of high-quality zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures through zinc powder evaporation at different temperatures is developed. ZnO nanostructures could be synthesized on n-type silicon substrates by a simple thermal evaporation technique without a catalyst at 600°C, 700°C, 800°C, and 900°C. Samples are annealed in wet oxygen and ambient argon gases. Surface morphology, crystallinity, and optical properties of the ZnO nanostructures are examined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope measurements, X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence measurement.
Authors: Noboru Ohtani, Masakazu Katsuno, T. Fujimoto, S. Sato, Hiroshi Tsuge, Wataru Ohashi, Hirofumi Matsuhata, Makoto Kitabatake
Abstract: Defect formation during the early stages of physical vapor transport (PVT) growth of 4H-SiC was investigated using high resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD). Characteristic lattice bending behaviors were revealed in the nearby seed crystal regions of grown crystals. The lattice bending was localized in close proximity to the seed/grown crystal interface, and the (0001) basal planes bended convexly toward the growth direction, indicative of the insertion of extra-half planes pointing toward the growth direction during the initial stages of crystal growth. This paper discusses the possible mechanisms of the observed lattice bending and sheds light on the defect formation processes during PVT-growth of 4H-SiC single crystals.
Authors: S. Kuntharin, S. Sanorpim, Hiroyuki Yaguchi, Y. Iwahashi, M. Orihara, Y. Hijakata, Sadafumi Yoshida
Authors: Henrik Jacobsson, Rositza Yakimova, Mikael Syväjärvi, Jens Birch, T.O. Tuomi, Erik Janzén
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