Papers by Keyword: Humanoid Robot

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Authors: Ill Woo Park, Baek Kyu Cho, Jung Yup Kim
Abstract: This paper describes a method for generating a center of gravity trajectory of a biped humanoid robot under variable reference ZMP trajectory. A simple inverted pendulum model (SIPM) is used to calculate a center of gravity (CoG) trajectory from a reference zero moment point (ZMP) trajectory with an analytic form, which is based on the Fourier series. Fundamentally, we used a time segmentation based approach. For each segment, we defined its duration and boundary conditions, which are the key parameters of ZMP trajectory design. After designing the ZMP trajectory in each segment, we can automatically calculate the CoG trajectory by matching the boundary conditions and by calculating the coefficients between the time segments. The reference ZMP trajectory can be changed by updating the boundary conditions during walking. We successfully verified the proposed method through full-body dynamic simulations with variable step length.
Authors: Noraidah Blar, Fairul Azni Jafar, Syahril Anuar Idris, Mahasan Mat Ali
Abstract: Robots are not rare applications anymore due to the advanced technology today. Everyone knows robots have been used in many fields. Humanoid robots are especially desirable in human society as they can work well in indoor environments that have been designed for humans. The technical characteristics for humanoid robot teacher listed in this paper are facial expression, walking, speaking and hearing, body gestures, and vision. These characteristics are believed to be essential in every humanoid robot involved in education. Technical explanations for each characteristic are provided throughout this paper. The list of robots that can be used as a robotic teacher is also given in this paper.
Authors: Gwang Ho Kim, Ju Hwan Kim, Sang Hee Lee, Sang Moon Shin, Sang Hwa Jeong
Abstract: The robot industry of the 21st century is focused on humanoid robot. It has more intelligence and is able to move dexterously like a biological organ than existing sequence robot. The key technology of this robot is the design of the actuator. To realize the anthropomorphic motion, artificial muscles, such as shape memory alloy and electro active polymer are used. The SMA actuator has good power density and simple structure, but the control scheme of the actuator is difficult. The electro active polymer has good elasticity, but it is difficult to get the required power. In this paper, the performance according to the motion control of segmented SMA wire is evaluated. SMA wire is segmented by thermoelectric modules. The displacement of SMA wire according to load is measured and its hysteresis is surveyed.
Authors: Ding Sheng Luo, Yi Wang, Xi Hong Wu
Abstract: Gait learning is usually under a so-called simulation based framework, where a simulation platform is firstly setup, and then based on which the gait pattern is learned via some learning algorithm. For the reason that there exist big differences between simulation platform and real circumstances, an additional adapting procedure is always required when learned gait pattern is applied to a real robot. This case turns out to be more critical for a biped robot, because its control appears more difficult than others, such as a quadruped robot. This leads the new scheme that the gait is directly learned on real robot to be attractive. However, under this real robot based learning scheme, most of those learning algorithms that commonly used under simulation based framework appear to be trivial, since they always needs too many learning trials which may wear out the robot hardware. Faced to this situation, in this paper, a surrogate model based gait learning approach for biped robot is proposed. And the experimental results on a real humanoid robot PKU-HR3 show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Authors: Zhe Qiu, Lei Zhang, Yang Tian, Xiao Kai Feng, Sheng Yuan Zhang
Abstract: A distributed control system applied to small humanoid robots is designed in this paper, using ARM embedded processor and modular function approaches. The system designs plenty of hardware circuits to promote operability of system and reduce difficulties in development. This design solves the problems of high cost, low scalability, weak autonomy of small humanoid robot control system, providing a reliable experimental platform for further study. The feasibility of this control system will be verified through walking experiment of biped robot.
Authors: Dong Bo Zhou, Ji Cai Deng, Geng Hui Wang, Qi Xin Deng
Abstract: In the Martial Arts arena contest of robot, Humanoid robot should recognize the target timely and accurately. So robot vision technology becomes a key of the contest. In this paper, target recognition algorithms based on color information are analyzed. According to the results, an improved algorithm based on Table Lookup method is proposed, which aimed to provide more rapidity of computing in real-time control system on the robot. It is shown in illustrative experiment that average 50% time was saved in computing when using the new algorithm instead of traditional algorithms.
Authors: Yu Zhang, Xiao Jiao Wang
Abstract: By analyzing the motion of eyes, eyebrows, mouth, and lower jaw in typical facial expressions, it obtains the motion scopes of each organ. Base on the humanoid head mechanism design, a robot model is created with existing software, which blends head mechanism model and facial elastomeric model. It simulates four typical facial expressions of the humanoid robot (happiness, sadness, surprise, anger) by using finite element method to analysis and simulation; and discuses under different displacement load, the degree of realizing facial expressions. It provided data for humanoid robot to be farther designed and developed.
Authors: Su Yi Liu, Yun Xu, Min Yin
Abstract: According to the effect of the human joints and the motion characteristics of the models’ footstep, combining with the distribution condition of degree of freedom of biped robots lower extremity structure in and abroad, we determine the number of the degree of freedom of robots legs is 12. Hip joint which has the characteristics of left and right axial rotation at horizontal direction, anteroposterior axis rotation and vertical axial rotation has 3 degrees of freedom. Ankle joint has 2 degrees of freedom which can rotate in left, right, pre and post directions is similar with the human ankle. Knee joint has a degree of joint and it extend the legs. The key of the design of humanoid robots is the joints design. The design of degrees of freedom of the joint is very important for whether the robots can walk successfully.
Authors: Ching Kuo Wang
Abstract: This paper is dedicated to self-handcraft an inexpensive, however, anthropomorphic robot face on the viewpoint of ryodoraku craftsmanship instead of the traditionally engineering viewpoint. Generally speaking, artificial emotions can be categorized into three stages. i.e., the preliminary abstraction, secondary expressionism, and advanced anthropomorphism. In this paper, biomimetic material is fabricated and mixed with the hypodermic mechanisms. Dynamic analysis and computer simulation of the inventive mechanisms are proposed to simplify the mechatronic design of each artificial module on the self-fabricated robot head. Thus, delicate variations of the facial emotions can dramatically spiritualize the humanoid robot with passionate scenarios. Finally, the ryodoraku simulations with PTZ(pen-tilt-zoom) dynamics are carefully examined and successfully demonstrated the advantages of the proposed innovation.
Authors: Kotaro Fukui, Yuma Ishikawa, Eiji Shintaku, Masaaki Honda, Atsuo Takanishi
Abstract: We developed an anthropomorphic talking robot, Waseda Talker No. 6 (WT-6), which generates speech sounds by mechanically simulating articulatory motions and aero-acoustic phenomena. WT-6 possesses 17 degrees of freedom (DOF): a 5-DOF tongue, 1-DOF jaws, 4-DOF lips, a nasal cavity, and a 1-DOF soft palate as articulators; and 5-DOF vocal cords and 1-DOF lungs as vocal organs. The vocal cords, tongue, and lips are made from the thermoplastic rubber Septon, whose elasticity is similar to that of human tissue. WT-6 has three-dimensional (3D) lips, tongue, jaw, and velum, which form the vocal tract structure. It also has an independent jaw opening/closing mechanism. The previous robot in the series had a two-dimensional tongue and could not produce human-like tongue shape. The new tongue can form 3D shapes, and thus, is able to produce more realistic vocal tract shapes. The vocal cord model consists of two folds, and is constructed with a structure similar to the biomechanical structure of human vocal cords. These vocal cords can vibrate in complex phases, similar to those of a human. With these mechanisms, the robot can reproduce human speech in a more biomechanical manner, and thus, can produce a voice closer to that of a human.
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