Papers by Keyword: Industrial Applications

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Authors: M. Rogante, Pavol Mikula, Miroslav Vrána
Abstract: Thermal neutrons are very useful probe in a nondestructive determination of internal stress/strains, due to their high penetration into most materials. In comparison with conventional X-ray techniques, real bulk information on both macro-and micro-strains in materials can be obtained by neutron diffraction (ND) techniques. Knowledge of the spatial and directional distribution of internal residual stresses (RS) is increasingly considered fundamental to determine their influence on properties of engineering materials and a consequent material behaviour. As the assesment of stresses is always related to the stress free material state, an accurate evaluation of the unstressed lattice parameters (e.g., the interplanar distance), in order to determine RS by ND is one of the key tasks. It helps to avoid inacceptable errors in the course of the real material strain and stress evaluation. The availability of carefully measured zero-strain standards is also essential to confirm the absence of systematic instrumental effects determining the diffraction profile at a chosen scattering angle. In this paper, the state of the art of the main analytical and experimental procedures currently established or adoptable to determine these critical parameters, particularly regarding industrial applications, is presented.
Authors: Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad, Marzieh Nazari, Sina Khazforoosh
Abstract: Ultrafine grained, nanostructured materials and other types of recombinant nanomaterials open new windows for future technology which make a revolutionary progress in key technologies such as chemistry, material sciences etc. Literature review of the paper shows that nanomaterials have a lot to do with building construction however there is not an influential relationship between usage of nanostructured materials and building industry. In the other word, commercialization and industrial applications of recombinant nanomaterials had yet to find its own role in contemporary architecture and the building construction industry. Therefore the most important question of the research is: what are the most important commercialization strategies regarding to industrial usage of nanomaterials in building construction? The results of the paper show that there is not a meaningful coherence between scientific researches and professional requirements. Moreover academic disciplines generally focus on theoretical era rather than professional fields. In order to make a more prosperous researches regarding to recombinant nanomaterials; should focus on 1-energy, 2-light, 3-security and 4-intelligence; as the most important commercialization strategies regarding to industrial usage of nanomaterials in building construction. Through these four determining strategies, nanomaterials may be adopted in coatings, panels and insulation in building construction; especially in partial requirements like roofs and facades, interior and exterior spaces.
Authors: Mohammad Mujahid Ali Khan, Anish Khan
Abstract: The chemical and mechanical stability of membrane play a important role for understanding the mechanism and applications of cobalt tungstate cation exchange membrane. The PVC based cobalt tungstate (CT) membrane has been prepared by different methods like sol-gel, die-casting and others material processing techniques. It has been prepared through the mixing of PVC with cobalt tungstate into a definite ratio (1:3) that shows good mechanical stability. Moreover, the paper is concerned with physico-chemical and electro-chemical characterization of membrane, namely fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical studies. The results of characterization and electrochemical studies offered the potential industrial applications of membrane in different areas.
Authors: Michael M. Gasik
Authors: Stan Veprek, Pavel Holubar, Maritza Veprek-Heijman
Abstract: The design and application of hard and superhard (H ≥ 40 GPa) coatings and their properties are discussed with the focus on superhard nanocomposites. The main part of the article deals with examples of industrial applications of hard and superhard nanocomposite coatings as wear protection coatings on tools for machining, forming, stamping, injection molding and the like. The advantages and possibilities as well as the limitations of the different types of coatings with emphasis on the nanocomposites are discussed and illustrated by a number of examples from aerospace and other branches of industry.
Authors: Oleg Vesnovsky, Mikhail F. Poletika, L.D. Timmie Topoleski, Victor A. Pushnykh
Authors: X.P. Wang, X.J. Chen, L.J. Zhu, W. Wang
Authors: Viorel Nicolau
Abstract: In general, the sound speed in air depends on the air characteristics, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, gas composition, and air turbulence. It has direct influence on performance of ultrasonic sensing applications, like those based on the distance measuring and the sound wavelength. For many industrial applications, the sound speed in air is considered as constant, but this is true only for constant environment properties, like indoor environments with air-conditioning systems. Even then, the speed of sound can have different constant values for different sets of environment properties, generated by their spatial or temporal variations. For outdoor environments, the supposition of constant sound speed can generate important errors of distance estimation, In addition, for low temperature values, the real distance to an object is smaller than measured distance by ultrasonic sensing, and this can be a dangerous situation. Hence, simple and accurate models of sound speed in air are very important for ultrasonic industrial applications. In this paper, models of sound speed in air are studied, and new models are proposed, which are capable of dealing with uncertainties generated by unknown air characteristics. In addition, expert rules for model selection are generated, and comparative simulation results are presented.
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