Papers by Keyword: Interstitial Free Steel

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Authors: Kalyan Kumar Ray, Ashmita Patra, Debashish Bhattacharjee
Abstract: A simple and reliable method has been proposed for determining fracture toughness of thin sheets. The principle of the method considers that critical crack opening displacement (c) corresponds to a specific amount of load drop during fracture toughness tests. The suggested technique yields c value for an interstitial free (IF) steel as 2.04 mm in excellent correspondence with an indirect estimate of 1.97 mm from the popular energy extrapolation technique. The magnitude of c for IF steel sheets is found to decrease with decreasing thickness in agreement with the expected variation of this criterion with specimen thickness in gross yielding fracture mechanics (GYFM) regime.
Authors: Ane Martínez-de-Guereñu, M. Oyarzabal, F. Arizti, Isabel Gutiérrez
Abstract: The recovery and recrystallization kinetics of a cold rolled interstitial free (IF) steel were studied during isothermal annealing. Magnetic methods based on coercive field measurements, hardness tests and metallography were applied so as to follow the kinetics experimentally. The coercive field measurement technique reveals a higher degree of resolution for monitoring recovery than conventional hardness determination and also allows the recrystallization progress to be monitored. The results obtained are compared to those previously determined for a non-stabilized extra low carbon (ELC) steel. The observed differences are discussed in terms of the presence of microalloying elements, Ti and Nb, which slow down recovery and delay recrystallization.
Authors: Roney Eduardo Lino, Ronaldo Barbosa
Abstract: Industry hot deformation processes such as hot rolling are complex in nature. Setting up a rolling mill requires precise knowledge of the loads needed to shape the metal. This in turn, demands the ability to predict the strength of the material when deformed to a value of strain and strain rate at a given temperature. On and off-line models need, however, to be fed with constitutive equations relating the stresses required to deform a certain metal under the usual process variables. This paper shows how a set of stress-strain curves can be modeled so that both hardening and softening mechanisms commonly present during hot deformation are taken into account. The model predictions are compared to a set of literature data in order to be validated. Reasonable agreement between published results and predicted values were obtained indicating how efficiently the model can assess values of stresses under hot working conditions.
Authors: Naoya Kamikawa, Xiao Xu Huang, Niels Hansen
Abstract: Annealing-induced hardening and deformation-induced softening behavior has recently been found in nanostructured aluminum (fcc) produced by severe plastic deformation. It has also been demonstrated that annealing led to a decrease in ductility while deformation led to an increase in ductility. These mechanical responses are totally opposite to those in conventional coarse-grained samples. The present study explores the effect of post-process annealing or deformation on mechanical properties of nanostructured interstitial free (IF) steel (bcc). Accumulative roll-bonding was used to produce the nanostructured IF steel. The deformation structure was characterized by a lamellar boundary structure with a mean spacing of about 200 nm, consisting of high-angle boundaries, low-angle dislocation boundaries and dislocations in the volume between the boundaries. When the deformed sample was annealed at 400oC for 0.5 h, the yield stress and ultimate tensile strength increased and the elongation to failure decreased markedly. In contrast, when the annealed treatment was followed by a light rolling deformation of 15 % thickness reduction, the strength decreased and the elongation to failure increased. These results are consistent with those observed in the aluminum samples. Structural observations by transmission electron microscopy indicated that a removal of dislocations between the boundaries leads to a lack of dislocation sources, resulting in a higher stress to activate alternative dislocation sources. It was suggested that deformation rather than annealing could be a new route to improve the ductility of nanostructured metals and that a moderate light deformation gives a good balance of strength and ductility.
Authors: Zhi Fen Wang, Rong Dong Han, Shun Bing Zhou, Zhong Hai Yao, Li Xin Wu
Abstract: Effect of annealing time on the microstructure and texture of IF steel sheets was investigated. Average grain size, grain boundary character and recrystallization texture were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in order to clarify the effect of annealing time on microstructure of recrystallization process. The average grain size increased with increasing annealing time. With rising annealing time, the number of low angle boundary (0~15o) decreased due to the mergence of grain with sub-boundary. The //ND (-fiber) pole intensity had a highest value annealed at 60s. The annealing time played an important role in recrystallization process which affected the mechanical properties and microstructure of IF steels.
Authors: C. Prentice, C.M. Sellars
Abstract: Plane strain compression tests have been carried out on Ti stabilised interstitial free steel at 700oC with constant and changing strain rates. Specimens were annealed in a salt bath at 750oC to determine the effects of changing strain rate on the kinetics of static recrystallisation and on the recrystallised grain size. After relatively slow changes in rate, the recrystallisation behaviour at the end of the change was the same as for tests at constant strain rate with the final value. For faster changes in rate, there were transients in recrystallisation rate and recrystallised grain size at the end of the change in strain rate at a strain of 1.0. These were removed by a further increment of 0.1 strain at constant rate. In all cases the recrystallised grain size correlated with the subgrain size present at the end of deformation.
Authors: Gong Ting Zhang, Zhi Wang Zheng, Min Li Wang
Abstract: Cold rolling and salt bath annealing simulation were conducted to study the evolution of microstructure and textures of a commercially produced Titanium stabilized interstitial free steel by means of optical microscopy and X-ray texture measurement. The results show that all of the as cold-rolled specimens are completely recrystallized after annealing. As the cold-rolling reduction increases, the recystallized ferrite grains are refined, The intensities of the stable {114} and {223} components remain strong after recrystallization. The orientation intensity of the {111} and {111} also increases accordingly. As the cold-rolling reduction increases to 90%, the intensity of {111} tend to be higher than that of {111}.
Authors: A. Najafi-Zadeh, John J. Jonas, Steve Yue
Authors: Peter Burik, Ladislav Pešek, Zuzana Andršová, Pavel Kejzlar
Abstract: Nanomechanical testing using depth sensing indentation (DSI) provides a straightforward solution for characterizing of mechanical properties (indentation hardness HIT, Young’s modulus EIT, indentation energy: total Wtotal, elastic Welast, plastic Wplast) of homogeneous (bulk) materials. However, real materials such as multi-phase steels are a heterogeneous material on the microscopic scale (microstructure). We need to know the local mechanical properties of each phase separately in those materials for reasons development of new materials and for modeling. Mechanical properties of each phase separately in multiphase materials are difficult or even impossible to examine in bulk material ex situ.In this paper we describe the technique for measuring the mechanical properties of each phase separately in multiphase steel by two-dimensional mapping tool. This approach relies on large arrays of nanoindentations (known as grid indentation) and statistical analysis of the resulting data [1, 2]. The aim of this investigation is to optimize the parameters of the grid indentation for a given microstructure of steel sheets.
Authors: Zhi Fen Wang, Rong Dong Han, Shun Bin Zhou, Hai E Huang, Li Xin Wu
Abstract: Effect of phosphorus content on the mechanical properties and microstructure of IF steel sheets was investigated. Average grain size and recrystallization texture were measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results showed that the higher P resulted in higher tensile strength and lowered the elongation and r-value. The average grain size increased with decreasing P content. The //ND (γ-fiber) pole intensity had a lowest value for IF steel with the highest P content which in turn deteriorate r-value. The element P played an important role in recrystallization process which affected the mechanical properties and microstructure of IF steels.
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