Papers by Keyword: Local Approach

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Authors: Volker Hardenacke, Jörg Hohe, Valérie Friedmann, Dieter Siegele
Abstract: The objective of the present study is the development of a micromechanically based probabilistic model for the assessment of the cleavage fracture probability of ferritic steels. Brittle fracture of ferritic steels is a probabilistic process, triggered by the failure of randomly distributed brittle particles. These particles fracture due to plastic deformation of the surrounding matrix, resulting in the nucleation of micro-cracks. Once nucleated, the local stress state controls the possible instability of the defects. In this context, the local stress-triaxiality is assumed to govern the blunting of freshly nucleated micro-defects. The local approach models available in literature account for the above-mentioned correlations only in a simplified manner. Based on Representative Volume Elements (RVE) of the microstructure, accounting for the grain-structure as well as for the brittle particles, the cleavage initiation process was modelled in order to investigate the relevant parameters and their interactions. The RVE’s were loaded according to the local mechanical field quantities determined numerically for a variety of specimen types at the cleavage-origins. Thus, the behaviour of the particles against the micromechanical conditions could be specified, resulting in a better understanding of the processes at cleavage fracture initiation. Based on the results, an enhanced probabilistic cleavage model is proposed.
Authors: Shusaku Takagi, Satoshi Terasaki, Kaneaki Tsuzaki, Tadanobu Inoue, Fumiyoshi Minami
Abstract: A new method for evaluating the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) susceptibility of ultra high strength steel was studied in order to propose a new method for assessing the delayed fracture property. The material used was 1400MPa tempered martensitic steel with the chemical composition 0.40C-0.24Si-0.81Mn-1.03Cr-0.16Mo(mass%). The local approach originally used for evaluating the brittle fracture property was applied to HE susceptibility assessment after modifying the method to include the effect of hydrogen content. Critical HE data used in the modified local approach was obtained by a stepwise test in which alternating processes of stress increase and stress holding were repeated until the specimen fractured. The specimen used in the stepwise test was 10 mm in diameter and the stress concentration factor was 4.9. Assessment of HE susceptibility for specimens with other dimensions entailed the use of a critical hydrogen content for failure, Hc, representing the maximum hydrogen content among the unfractured specimens in the HE test with constant loading. Matters to be noted for obtaining the material parameters are discussed.
Authors: Yoon Suk Chang, T.R. Lee, Jae Boong Choi, Young Jin Kim
Abstract: The influences of stress triaxiality on ductile fracture have been emphasized to explain the geometry independent fracture resistance characteristics of specimens and structures during past two decades. For the estimation of this material behavior, two-parameter global approach and local approach can be used as case by case manner. Recently, the interests for the local approach and micro-mechanical damage model are increased again due to progress of computational environments. In this paper, the applicability of the local approach has been assessed through a series of finite element analyses incorporating both modified GTN model and Rousselier model. The ductile crack growth behaviors are examined to guarantee the transferability on different sizes and geometries of C(T) specimens and SE(T) specimens. The material fitting constants are determined from calibration of tensile tests and numerical analyses results, and used to simulate the fracture behaviors of typical specimens. Then, a comparison is drawn between the numerically estimated crack resistance curves and experimentally determined ones. The comparison results show a good agreement and the two damage models are regarded as promising solutions for ductile crack growth simulation.
Authors: Yoon Suk Chang, Jong Min Kim, Chang Sung Seok, Jae Boong Choi, Young Jin Kim
Abstract: The present work deals with an applicability of the local approach to assess in-plane size effects among different sized compact tension (CT) specimens. To characterize ductile crack growth of typical nuclear materials, SA515 Gr.60 and SA516 Gr.70 carbon steels, finite element analyses employing modified GTN and Rousselier models as well as fracture toughness tests were carried out. Material damage parameters were calibrated using standard CT specimens and reflected to predict fracture resistance (J-R) curves of larger CT specimens. Since comparison results between numerically estimated J-R curves and experimentally determined ones corresponded well, it is anticipated that the local approach might be used as a promising tool for ductile fracture evaluation incorporating the in-plane size effect.
Authors: Yoon Suk Chang, T.R. Lee, Jae Boong Choi, Young Jin Kim, Bong Sang Lee
Abstract: The scatter of measured fracture toughness data and transferability problems for specimens with different crack configurations and loading conditions are major obstacles for integrity assessment of ferritic steels in ductile-brittle transition region. To address these issues, recently, concerns for local approach adopting micro-mechanical damage models are being increased again in connection with a progress of computational technology. In this paper, cleavage fracture evaluation based on Weibull statistics was carried out for SA508 carbon steel. A series of three dimensional finite element analyses as well as corresponding fracture toughness tests were performed for 1T-CT and PCVN specimens at -60°C. Also, failure probability analyses for different configurations and sensitivity analyses for Weibull parameters were conducted. Thereby, promising results have been derived through comparison between measured and estimated fracture toughness data, which can be utilized to make the basis for demonstrating real safety margins of components containing defect.
Authors: Saeid Hadidi-Moud, A. Mirzaee-Sisan, Christopher E. Truman, David John Smith
Abstract: Potentially both global and local approaches may be used to predicting the effect of loading history on cleavage fracture toughness distribution of ferritic steels. In this paper the dramatic increase in the apparent lower shelf fracture toughness of A533B steel following warm pre-stressing (WPS) has been predicted using these approaches. Extensive experimental evidence suggesting significant enhancement in fracture toughness of ferritic steels within the lower shelf temperatures following WPS are used to verify and compare the applicability and the extent of validity of the models. The global approach is based on the distribution of toughness data described by Wallin statistical model in conjunction with the Chell model for WPS effect. The local approach on the other hand is a Beremin type model that uses the Weibull stress to predict the WPS effect. Weibull stresses would essentially reflect the WPS effect on redistribution of stress-state around the crack tip. Predictions for apparent toughness using the two approaches are discussed in the light of the suggestion that residual stresses are the main cause of the enhancement, at least for the material and geometry used in this study.
Authors: Han Ok Ko, Sun Jung Kang, Yoon Suk Chang, Jae Boong Choi, Young Jin Kim, Min Chul Kim, Bong Sang Lee
Abstract: Fracture toughness data from the cleavage resistance test of structural steels often show a large scatter. Geometry dependency as well as the scatter makes it difficult to evaluate appropriate fracture integrity of cracked components. To address these restrictions, several stochastic models have been proposed by Beremin group, Mudry and other researchers while each of them employs specific estimation scheme and micro-mechanical parameters. The purpose of this paper is to investigate applicability of the Weibull stress model in transition temperature regime and to quantify constraint effect among different-sized CT and PCVN specimens. The constituting parameters m and σu are determined at three temperatures by maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) technique in use of FE analysis results and experimental data of PCVN specimens. Also, failure probabilities of PCVN and CT specimens are calculated from the Weibull parameters, which are used for derivation of a prototype of toughness scale diagram. The diagram provides a technical basis to resolve transferability issue in the same material under different temperatures and constraint conditions.
Authors: Misa Zrilić, Marko Rakin, Aleksandar Sedmak, R. Aleksić, Z. Cvijović, Miodrag Arsić
Abstract: Considering the conditions to which steels used for the manufacture of steam pipelines are exposed, the micromechanism of their destruction in exploitation is exclusively the ductile one. In order to make an estimation of the level of the damage that occurs in exploitation, in this paper a combined experimental and numerical procedure has been developed based on micromechanical or local approach to the fracture mechanics of metallic materials. After the analysis of the results obtained for micromechanical criterion of failure for virgin steel and that used in the steam pipeline, a proposal for prolongation of the working life of tested steel for steam pipelines until the next overhaul is given.
Authors: Lian Yong Xu, Hong Yang Jing, Jun Wei, Hui Zou
Abstract: In this paper, the local approach based on the Weibull stress criterion was used to investigate the interfacial fracture behavior between LX88A coating and Q345 steel. LX88A coating was deposited by high velocity electric arc spraying technology (HVAS). The finite element method (FEM) was used to analyze the stress-strain fields of the coating specimen which consisted of three different specimen geometrics or modes of loading. It was found that the Weibull stress for all specimen geometries was almost identical under the same fracture probability when the interfacial fracture initiation occurred for different specimen geometries. It showed that the geometry dependence on the interface brittle fracture toughness data can be reduced through application of the local approach, and the local approach can be used to describe the interfacial fracture behavior.
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