Papers by Keyword: Micromechanics

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Authors: Tie Jun Wang, Wen Xu Zhang, Kikuo Kishimoto, Mitsuo Notomi
Abstract: Body-centered cubic unit cell models and three-dimensional finite element method are used to study the inelastic deformation of rubber particle modified polymers. Calculations are carried out for three loading conditions, i.e. uniaxial loading, plane strain deformation loading and the so-called 'equivalent shear' loading. Distributions of the localized shear deformation are presented to understand the microscopic deformation mechanisms of the polymers. Effects of particle size, particle volume fraction and loading conditions on the micro- and macroscopic deformation behavior of rubber particle modified polymers are discussed.
Authors: Christian N. Della, Dong Wei Shu
Abstract: In this research, a comparative study of the hydrostatic performances of 1-3 piezoelectric composites with a porous matrix is presented. The piezoelectric fibers PZT-5H and PZT-7A are considered in the present study. The micromechanics based Mori-Tanaka model is used. Results of the study show that PZT-5H/Aradite D composite have better hydrostatic performance than PZT- 7A/Aradite D composite, and this advantage of PZT-5H/Aradite D composite over PZT-7A/Aradite D composite increases with the increase of porosity in the matrix.
Authors: Ivano Benedetti, Vincenzo Gulizzi, Alberto Milazzo
Abstract: In this contribution, we propose a cohesive grain-boundary model for hydrogen-assisted inter-granular stress corrosion cracking at the grain-scale in 3D polycrystalline aggregates. The inter-granular strength is degraded by the presence of hydrogen and this is accounted for by employing traction-separation laws directly depending on hydrogen concentration, whose diffusion is represented at this stage through simplified phenomenological relationships. The main feature of the model is that all the relevant mechanical fields are represented in terms of grain-boundary variables only, which couples particularly well with the employment of traction-separation laws.
Authors: Chen Yuan Chung
Abstract: Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a tough semi-crystalline polymer employed widely as a bearing material in total joint replacements. The micromechanical model has been presented that predicts stiffness of UHMWPE as an aggregate of crystalline inclusions (lamellae) embedded in a rubbery matrix of amorphous polymer chains. The differential scheme was chosen for its ability to represent the interaction between an inclusion and the matrix. Numerical simulations show that increasing lamellar thickness results in less stiffness, less shear stress imposed on the lamellae, indicates that thick lamellae are desirable for UHMWPE materials utilized in total joint replacement bearings.
Authors: Jiao Xia Lan, Yong Zhong Wu, You Shi Hong
Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations have show that nanocrystalline (NC) materials can be treated as composite materials consisting of two phases of grain and grain boundary. In this paper, the incremental stress-strain relation is derived based on deformation mechanism of NC materials and internal variable theory from micromechanics point of view. The developed model is exemplified by the pure copper subjected to uniaxial tension. Implicated iteration algorithm is then employed to obtain the stress-strain relation. Moreover, the effects of grain shape and statistical distribution of grain sizes are also discussed, and predicted results are compared with experimental values to verify the model.
Authors: Vincenzo Gulizzi, Alberto Milazzo, Ivano Benedetti
Abstract: In this work, the grain-boundary cavitation in polycrystalline aggregates is investigated by means of a grain-scale model. Polycrystalline aggregates are generated using Voronoi tessellations, which have been extensively shown to retain the statistical features of real microstructures. Nucleation, thickening and sliding of cavities at grain boundaries are represented by specific cohesive laws embodying the damage parameters, whose time evolution equations are coupled to the mechanical model. The formulation is presented within the framework of a grain-boundary formulation, which only requires the discretization of the grain surfaces. Some numerical tests are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the method.
Authors: Tie Jun Wang, Kikuo Kishimoto, Mitsuo Notomi
Authors: Ivano Benedetti, Vincenzo Gulizzi, Alberto Milazzo
Abstract: Piezoelectric ceramics are employed in several applications for their capability to couple mechanical and electrical fields, which can be advantageously exploited for the implementation of smart functionalities. The electromechanical coupling, which can be employed for fast accurate micro-positioning devices, makes such materials suitable for application in micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). However, due to their brittleness, piezoceramics can develop damage leading to initiation of micro-cracks, affecting the performance of the material in general and the micro-devices in particular. For such reasons, the development of accurate and robust numerical tools is an important asset for the design of such systems. The most popular numerical method for the analysis of micro-mechanical multi-physics problems, still in a continuum mechanics setting, is the Finite Element Method (FEM). Here we propose an alternative integral formulation for the grain-scale analysis of degradation and failure in polycrystalline piezoceramics. The formulation is developed for 3D aggregates and inter-granular failure is modelled through generalised cohesive laws.
Authors: Ivano Benedetti, Vincenzo Gulizzi
Abstract: A grain-scale formulation for high-cycle fatigue inter-granular degradation in polycrystalline aggregates is presented. The aggregate is represented through Voronoi tessellations and the mechanics of individual bulk grains is modelled using a boundary integral formulation. The inter-granular interfaces degrade under the action of cyclic tractions and they are represented using cohesive laws embodying a local irreversible damage parameter that evolves according to high-cycle continuum damage laws. The consistence between cyclic and static damage, which plays an important role in the redistribution of inter-granular tractions upon cyclic degradation, is assessed at each fatigue solution jump, so to capture the onset of macro-failure. Few polycrystalline aggregates are tested using the developed technique, which may find application in multiscale modelling of engineering components as well as in the design of micro-electro-mechanical devices (MEMS).
Authors: Ivano Benedetti, Ferri M.H.Aliabadi
Abstract: A two-scale three-dimensional approach for degradation and failure in polycrystalline materials is presented. The method involves the component level and the grain scale. The damage-induced softening at the macroscale is modelled employing an initial stress boundary element approach. The microscopic degradation is explicitly modelled associating Representative Volume Elements (RVEs) to relevant points of the macro continuum and employing a cohesive-frictional 3D grain-boundary formulation to simulate intergranular degradation and failure in the Voronoi morphology. Macro-strains are downscaled as RVEs' periodic boundary conditions, while overall macro-stresses are obtained upscaling the micro-stress field via volume averages. The comparison between effective macro-stresses for the damaged and undamaged RVEs allows to define a macroscopic measure of local material degradation. Some attention is devoted to avoiding pathological damage localization at the macro-scale. The multiscale processing algorithm is described and some preliminary results are illustrated.
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