Papers by Keyword: Microstructure

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Authors: Hiromi Nakano, Yoko Suyama
Abstract: Fabrication of advanced electronic components requires high-quality powders. In this work, nano-powders of Li or Na niobates are synthesized from (Li or Na)-Nb ethoxide by a sol-crystal method. A single crystal of (Li or Na)-Nb ethoxide is decomposed to an amorphous matrix below 473 K. Next, small crystals are grown by heating at the appropriate temperature for each specimen. The sol-crystal method provides homogeneous quality and fine grains by heating at lower temperature. Structural analysis of the powders is performed by a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction. As a result, LiNbO3 turns to dense-powders, but NaNbO3 forms nano-porous powders. In order to understand this difference, we try to observe in-situ the crystallization and grain growth processes by high-temperature TEM. We successfully observe in-situ this processing and discuss the structural change and formation mechanism of LiNbO3, comparing these features with those of NaNbO3.
Authors: C.F. Fang, L.G. Meng, N.N. Wu, X.G. Zhang
Abstract: In-situ micro/nanosized TiB2 and Al2(Y, Gd) particles reinforced magnesium matrix composite was successfully fabricated by addition of Al-Ti-B preform into Mg-Gd-Y-Zn matrix alloy, its microstructures and properties were investigated. The results show that the introduction of Al-Ti-B preform causes the precipitation of Al2(Y, Gd) particles and the SHS synthesis of TiB2 particles which significantly refine solidification structure. The reinforced Al2(Y, Gd) particles with average sizes of 5-8 μm are uniformly distributed throughout the magnesium matrix, and have a good bond to the matrix. Tensile tests indicate that, compared with the former matrix alloy, mechanical properties of the multiple in-situ particles reinforced composite are improved all-roundly.
Authors: Mohamad Johari Abu, Julie Juliewatty Mohamed, Mohd Fadzil Ain, Zainal Arifin Ahmad
Abstract: CaCu(3+x)Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics with different Cu-excess (x = 0 – 0.6) were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. Characterization of the prepared ceramics with XRD and FESEM showed that lattice parameter and grain size are slightly increased, indicating Cu-excess to have the big impact on the both phase structure and microstructure. The XRD profiles indicated that the secondary phase (CuO or Cu2O) existed at edge/corner of CCTO grain, which promoted inhibited grain growth behavior. The CCTO ceramics exhibited two trends of dielectric constant related to frequency, which showed a flatter curve about ~50 in 1 – 25 GHz regions, and it’s dropped rapidly to ~35 in 25 – 50 GHz region. With Cu-excess, the dielectric constant of the ceramics was increased for an average of a quarter-order of magnitude, while the tangent loss also increased up to triple times than x = 0, for the same frequency range. Despite enormous increase of dielectric constant related to varying Cu-excess, the tangent loss also increased.
Authors: Y. Nakamura, Norio Kawagoishi, K. Kariya
Abstract: In the present study, the tensile and fatigue properties of extruded 7075 Al alloys subjected to re-solution treatment and then T6, T73 and retrogression-reaging (RRA) tempers were reassessed based upon the microstructural analyses by means of electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructural analyses indicated that fibrous grains having orientations close to <111> and <001> were preferentially aligned in the extrusion direction and that re-solution treatment increased the fraction of <111> grains. Further the as-received T6 specimens had very high dislocation density as well as fine subgrains, while the re-solution treatment decreased dislocation density considerably and increased grain size. These characteristics explained tensile properties well, by taking into account the effect of precipitates formed by tempers. On the other hand, fatigue strength decreased prominently in all of the specimens, as the relative humidity (RH) was increased from 25% to 85%. T73 and RRA treatments which improve the resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in static loading were not effective in the humidity-enhanced deterioration in fatigue strength.
Authors: Dan Xie, Zhi Gang Zhang, Tian Ling Ren, Li Tian Liu
Abstract: {0.75SrBi2Ta2O9-0.25Bi3TiTaO9}(SBT-BTT) thin films were prepared by the modified metalorganic solution deposition (MOSD) technique. The microstructure and ferroelectric properties of SBTBTT thin films were studied. The SBT-BTT thin films were produced at 750°C. The grain size and surface roughness of SBT-BTT films showed significant enhancement with an increase in annealing temperatures. It is found that SBT-BTT thin films have good ferroelectric properties. The measured remanent polarization values for SBT-BTT, SBT and BTT capacitors were 15, 7.5 and 4.8μC/cm2, respectively. The coercive field for SBT-BTT capacitors was 50kV/cm. More importantly, the polarization of SBT-BTT capacitors only decreased 5% after 1011 switching cycles at a frequency of 1MHz.
Authors: Jean-Louis Chermant, F. Doreau, Jean Vicens
Authors: D. Ruvalcaba, Dmitry G. Eskin, Laurens Katgerman
Abstract: In the present research the possibility of studying the solidification of aluminum alloys by using the quenching technique is analyzed. Since the quenching technique does not provide reliable information (i.e. due to an overestimation of solid fraction) when measuring the solid fraction over 2D images from samples quenched at high temperature, the overestimation problem is investigated by analyzing 3D reconstructed microstructures from quenched samples. The 3D reconstructed microstructure may provide better understanding about the cause of overestimation of solid fraction when quenching at high temperatures. Consequently, the reconstruction of the microstructure that has existed before quenching may be possible after identifying and removing the solid phase that develops during quenching. In the present research, binary aluminum alloys are solidified and quenched at different temperatures, and then 3D reconstructed images are analyzed. The possibility of reconstructing the microstructure that develops during solidification before quenching is discussed.
Authors: Chen Yang Zhang, Sheng Dun Zhao, Guan Hai Yan, Yong Fei Wang
Abstract: To prepare semi-solid AlSi9Mg alloy slurry, we simulated electromagnetic stirring (EMS) based on a coupled 3D model of electromagnetic field, temperature field, and flow field by sequentially coupling ANSOFT and FLUENT software. Results show that magnetic flux density and electromagnetic body force (EMF) decrease and exhibit non-uniform patterns as stirring frequency increases. However, magnetic flux density and EMF increase in proportion to the stirring current but become more inhomogeneous. As EMF increases, the flow velocity and the depth of vortex in the semi-solid slurry gradually increase; thus, slurry temperature decreases. The deviation in temperature is then reduced between the center and the edge. As a result, the microstructure of the slurry evolves from coarse rosette grains to fine and spheroidal ones. By comparison, turbulent flow is generated by excessive and more unevenly distributed EMF, which causes deterioration in microstructures, such as the formation of cavities in the semi-solid AlSi9Mg alloy slurry. Based on simulation and experimental results, our conclusion is that reasonable process parameters have been obtained and verified experimentally. These results also show the validity and reliability of EMS-prepared semi-solid AlSi9Mg alloy.
Authors: Ulrich Lienert, Jonathan Almer, Bo Jakobsen, Wolfgang Pantleon, Henning Friis Poulsen, D. Hennessy, C. Xiao, R.M. Suter
Abstract: The implementation of 3-Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction (3DXRD) Microscopy at the Advanced Photon Source is described. The technique enables the non-destructive structural characterization of polycrystalline bulk materials and is therefore suitable for in situ studies during thermo-mechanical processing. High energy synchrotron radiation and area detectors are employed. First, a forward modeling approach for the reconstruction of grain boundaries from high resolution diffraction images is described. Second, a high resolution reciprocal space mapping technique of individual grains is presented.
Authors: De Qing Xie, Yong Gan Yang, Yun Sheng Zhang
Abstract: In this paper, an area-oriented algorithm based on a cellular automaton (CA) is proposed firstly to generate random irregular particles in a special area. The algorithm is used to reconstruct a 2D image with numerous irregular particles, the particles information is extracted from a 2D original image reprocessed from a BSE image of Cement CCRL-133 (NIST, USA). To make it more comparable, a uniform size 2D image is reconstructed by random packing of circle cement particles. In addition, the influence of cement particle shapes (circle and irregular) on initial surface areas and pore size information of initial cement paste microstructure is presented. Comparative results demonstrate that the 2D image reconstructed by irregular particles generating from the new algorithm is consistent with the original one.
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