Papers by Keyword: NbC

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Authors: M. Lütfi Öveçoğlu, Emre Tekoğlu, Sıddıka Mertdinç, Duygu Ağaoğulları
Abstract: In this study, microstructural and mechanical properties of a Al-5 wt.% Si/2 wt% (NbB2, NbC) composite synthesized by sequentially milling (mechanical alloying (MA) and/or cryogenic milling (CM)) were investigated. Nb2O5, B2O3 and C powder blends were milled using high energy milling for 5 h and annealed at 1400 oC for 12 h to produce NbB2-NbC hybrid powders. The NbB2-NbC hybrid powders were mixed with the matrix Al-5 wt.% Si powders to constitute the Al-5 wt.% Si/2 wt.% (NbB2-NbC) powders blends which were mechanically alloyed (MA'd) for 4 h using SpexTM Mixer/Mill, cryo-milled for 10 min in a SpexTM 6870 Freezer/Mill and finally MA’d for 1h in SpexTM Mixer/Mill again. As-blended, MA’d and cryomilled powders were compacted in a hydraulic press with a uniaxial pressure of 450 MPa. Compacted samples were sintered at 570°C for 2 h under Ar gas atmosphere. Microstructural characterizations of the as-blended/MA'd powders and the sintered composites were performed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Density and microhardness measurements and sliding wear tests were performed on the sintered composite samples. Sequentially milled and sintered Al-5 wt.% Si-2 wt.% (NbB2-NbC) samples had the highest mean microhardness value (2.29 ± 24.98 GPa) and the lowest wear volume loss (0.038 mm3).
Authors: Yong Sheng Yan, Liang Chang, Xiang Ru Chen, Qin Hua, Qi Jie Zhai
Abstract: This paper mainly studied the effect of niobium on graphite which was quantitatively analyzed by the image analysis software. The results showed that with the amount of niobium increasing the number of nodular graphite and the percent of spheroidization in ductile iron were reduced whereas the size of nodular graphite was increased.
Authors: Uilame Umbelino Gomes, L.A. Oliveira, S.R.S. Soares, M. Furukava, C.P. Souza
Abstract: Sintered stainless steel has a wide range of applications mainly in the automotive industry. Properties such as wear resistance, density and hardness can be improved by addition of nanosized particles of refractory carbides. The present study compares the behavior of the sintering and hardness of stainless steel samples reinforced with NbC or TaC (particles size less than 20 nm) synthesized at UFRN. The main aim of this work was to identify the effect of the particle size and dispersion of different refractory carbides in the hardness and sintered microstructure. The samples were sintered in a vacuum furnace. The heating rate, sintering temperature and times were 20°C/min, 1290°C and 30, 60 min respectively. We have been able to produce compacts with a relative density among 95.0%. The hardness values obtained were 140 HV for the reinforced sample and 76 HV for the sample without reinforcement.
Authors: Gang Dong, Biao Yan, Qi Lin Deng, Ting Yu, Yu Xin Wang, Yin Hui Yang
Abstract: The in situ synthesized NbC particles reinforced Ni-based alloy composite coating has been successfully prepared on 1045 steel substrate by laser cladding a precursor mixture of Ni-based alloy, graphite and niobium powders. The microstructure, phase composition and wear property of the composite coating are investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dry sliding wear test. The experiment results show that the coating is uniform, continuous and free of pores and cracks with excellent bonding between the coating and the substrate. The microstructure of the coating is mainly composed of γ-Ni dendrite, a large amount of interdendritic eutectics of M23(CB)6, N3B with γ-Ni, M23(CB)6 type carbides and dispersed NbC particles. The growth mechanism of the NbC particles with cores is nucleation-growth and the un-melted niobium may act as the nucleation core for NbC, Compared to the pure Ni-based alloy coating, the hardness of the composite coating is increased about 36 %, giving a high average hardness of approximate HV0.2750. Moreover, the wear volume and wear rate of the composite coating are decreased about 50 % and 42 %, respectively. This is attributed to the presence of in situ synthesized NbC particles and their well distribution in the coating.
Authors: Hiroyuki Hosokawa, Kiyotaka Katou, Koji Shimojima, Ryoichi Furushima, Akihiro Matsumoto
Abstract: The fracture toughness and hardness of Ti (C0.7N0.3)-19Mo2C-xNbC-24Ni cermets (x = 0, 5, 20) were studied. Fracture toughness of 5 NbC was the largest, and it of 20 NbC was the lowest. The microstructures of all the cermets consisted of Ti (C,N) and solid soluted Ti (C,N) hard phase, and Ni binder phase. The solid soluted Ti (C,N) surrounded Ti (C,N), namely, core-rim structures were observed in 0NbC and 5NbC. On the other hand, the isolated Ti (C,N) and solid soluted Ti (C,N) were observed in 20NbC, as a result of the phase separation between Ti (C,N) core and solid soluted Ti (C,N).
Authors: Ashok Kumar, Rajesh Deoliya, P.S. Chani
Abstract: Insulation is considered one of the effective solutions to achieve energy savings in buidings. Better insulation having low thermal conductivity contributes significantly to new construction and retrofitting existing buildings. The Energy Conservation Building Code and National Building Code of India define the prescriptive and mandatory requirements for the U-factor and R-values for different climates but the way to achieve these values is left to the designers. As none of the walling and roofing assemblies in buildings fulfill the criteria for overall thermal transmittance, the study deals with determining the thermal conductivity of sustainable walling materials and prefab roofing technologies as well as insulating materials using Guarded Hot-Plate Apparatus. The MATLAB program is developed for computing the U-values and for predicting the desired retrofit insulation thicknesses to make different materials and roofing assembly combinations comply the Code requirements in different climatic regions of India. The results of the study are used for computing the performance with and without insulation using DesgnBuilder software for improving energy efficinecy of the buildings in composite climate in India.
Authors: Ian Zuazo, Sebastian Cobo
Abstract: Precipitation strengthening by fine Nb-rich particles represents an important element on the design of low carbon high strength steels. This is typically obtained on steel strips by thermal holding at temperatures above 600°C following the austenite to ferrite transformation. These conditions are beneficial to obtain a large precipitation of small Nb-rich precipitates. On the other hand, precipitation at lower temperatures, in a phase already hard, such as bainite, has been scarcely studied. In this work, the precipitation phenomena occurring during isothermal treatments following the austenite to bainite transformation at 450°C are investigated. For this purpose, two Nb-alloyed low carbon steels with and without silicon are studied and the evolution of the microstructure is determined by the use of transmission electron microscopy and followed by hardness measurements. The presence of a hardness peak is not detected until long isothermal times (150h). Preliminary atom probe tomography (APT) characterization provides insight on the possible presence of fine NbC precipitates at the peak hardness treatment. A comparison with a Nb-free alloy indicates a significant hardening effect of niobium on the bainitic structure.
Authors: Dennis Ouden, Fred J. Vermolen, Lie Zhao, Cees Vuik, Jilt Sietsma
Abstract: This study attempts to incorporate the effect of elastic deformation in a previously proposedmodel for the nucleation and growth of precipitates. We adapt the KWN-model by Robson to incor-porate the effect of strain energy arising from elastic deformation on the homogeneous nucleation andgrowth of NbC particles in a High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steel at constant temperature. Simula-tions of the nucleation and growth of NbC particles in an HSLA steel on the cylindrical region showthat the incorporation of elastic strain energies has a noticeable impact on the process. The derivedquantities of homogeneous nucleation and growth, such as the particle number density and the meanparticle radius, show a clear spatial correlation with the calculated strain energy.
Authors: Enikő Réka Fábián, Péter Boross, Balázs Verő, Piroska Fülöp
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