Papers by Keyword: Osteogenesis

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Authors: Chen Wang, Kai Li Lin, Jiang Chang, Jiao Sun
Abstract: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the in vivo biological behaviour of porous β-CS/PDLGA scaffolds. The scaffolds were implanted in critical-sized femur defects ( 6 ×10 mm) for 4, 12 and 20 weeks with β-TCP scaffolds as the control. The in vivo bone regeneration of the scaffolds were investigated using sequential histological evaluations and Micro-CT technology. Results showed that the β-CS/PDLGA scaffolds could stimulate bone regeneration and degrade progressively at a rate proportionate with the regeneration of new bone as compared with β-TCP scaffolds. The present study suggested the potential application of β-CS/PDLGA scaffolds in hard tissue regeneration.
Authors: Pierre Layrolle, Serge Baroth, Eric Goyenvalle, Eric Aguado, Françoise Moreau, G. Daculsi
Abstract: An hydrated putty was prepared by mixing submicron particles, rounded particles and granules of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP) ceramics composed of HA and β-TCP phases. The material filled entirely critical sized defects in the femoral epiphysis of NZW rabbits. After 3, 6 and 12 weeks, histology revealed that submicron particles were rapidly degraded by multinucleated TRAP-positive cells. This osteoclastic resorption stimulated bone ingrowth while the large BCP particles served as scaffold supporting bone healing by osteoconduction.
Authors: S. Loty, J.M. Sautier, C. Loty, M.T. Tan, D.C. Greenspan, N. Forest
Authors: Larry L. Hench, Julia M. Polak
Abstract: Historically the function of biomaterials has been to replace diseased, damaged and aged tissues. First generation biomaterials, including bio ceramics, were selected to be as inert as possible in order to minimize the thickness of interfacial scar tissue. Bioactive glasses provided an alternative from the 1970’s onward; second generation bioactive bonding of implants with tissues and no interfacial scar tissue. This chapter reviews the discovery that controlled release of biologically active Ca and Si ions from bioactive glasses leads to the up-regulation and activation of seven families of genes in osteoprogenitor cells that give rise to rapid bone regeneration. This finding offers the possibility of creating a new generation of gene activating bioceramics designed specially for tissue engineering and in situ regeneration of tissues.
Authors: H.Y. Yeung, J.Z. Liu, Ling Qin, Yun Yu Hu, Chang Wei Lu, K.M. Lee, Y.M. Chiu, Jack C.Y. Cheng
Abstract: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) possess a high replicative capacity and have the capacity to differentiate into various connective tissue cell types. With the advance in cell culture technique, the BMSCs have been induced to differentiate to osteoblastics linage. To improve the situation of non-union in posterior spinal fusion (PSF), tissue engineering approach to combine BMSCs supported by the calcium phosphate ceramics was applied in PSF and its effect was investigated in the present study. Autologous BMSCs from 16-week-old rabbit tibiae were expanded and induced to differentiate into osteoblastic cells with defined medium and osteogenic supplement. Calcium phosphate ceramic (CPC) was used as the scaffold to deliver the cells to the standardized rabbit posterior spinal fusion model. The assessment of bone mineral and fusion mass volume was conducted at week 7 post-operation with quantitative computed tomography and micro-computed tomography. When compared with control, the composite of BMSCs with CPC enhanced the fusion mass volume by 40% (p<0.05) and bone mineral content in the CPC was 7% (p=0.05) higher. Our study showed that additional BMSCs at the fusion site of PSF did provide extra resource for new bone formation and enhanced the fusion rate.
Authors: Eliana dos Santos Câmara-Pereira, Ana Emília Holanda Rolim, Evelyn Reale, Rafael Barreto, Lilian Campos, Aryon de Almeida Barbosa Junior, Alexandre Malta Rossi, Silvia Rachel de Albuquerque-Santos, Fabiana Paim Rosa
Abstract: Bone tissue in ideal conditions morphofunctional remodeling properly. The bone can be affected by fractures, tumors, hormonal dysfunction, senescence, genetic modifications, among others. In such circumstances, the proper diet, drug use, exercise and other factors are important to the prevention of bone mineral loss. The effect of kinesiotherapy obtained through the application of vibratory waves administered through the vibrating platform, Juvent1000 ® already been established in the prevention of bone mineral density, muscular trophism, among other systems in humans. The response by analyzing bone tissue of bone repair in critical defect is not known in experimental animals and in human clinical. This research evaluated the osteogenic potential critical defect in the calvaria of rats subjected to the application of vibratory waves obtained by vibrating platform and implant in the critical defect of rat calvaria. The bone tissue response was evaluated showed satisfactory results obtained in biological points 15, 45 and 120 days.
Authors: Han Guo, Jie Wei, Hang Kong, Chang Sheng Liu, Ke Feng Pan
Abstract: Porous calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds were successfully fabricated utilizing particle-leaching method. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured, expanded and seeded on the scaffolds and the proliferation and differentiation of MSCs into osteoblastic phenotype were determined using MTT assay, ALP activity and ESEM. The results revealed that the CPC scaffolds were biocompatible and had no negative effects on the MSCs in vitro. The in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenicity of the scaffolds were investigated. Both pure scaffolds and MSCs/scaffold constructs were implanted in rabbit mandibles and studied histologically. The results showed that CPC scaffolds exhibited good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Moreover, the introduction of MSCs into the scaffolds dramatically enhanced the efficiency of new bone formation initially.
Authors: Fumio Watari, Atsuro Yokoyama, Hironobu Matsuno, F. Saso, Motohiro Uo, Takao Kawasaki
Authors: Jin Iida, Takafumi Yoshikawa, Y. Ueda, Hajime Ohgushi, Toshimasa Uemura, Y. Enomoto, Kunio Ichijima, Yoshinori Takakura, Tetsuya Tateishi
Authors: Masashi Iwasashi, Masataka Sakane, Yasushi Suetsugu, Naoyuki Ochiai
Abstract: Unidirectional porous hydroxyapatite (UDPHAp) was developed which has microstructure in that cross sectionally oval pores 100 ~ 300µm in diameter penetrate through the material, and that is suitable for osteogenesis and angiogenesis.The porosity of the UDPHAp was 75 % and the compression strength was 14 MPa. A cortical bone defect was made at proximal tibia of Japanese white rabbit, and a trapezoidal prisms shaped UDPHAp was implanted. By histlogical evaluation, 2 weeks after implantation, new bone and new capillary was observed inside UDPHAp. Twelve weeks after implantation, new bone formation was observed in 41.6 % of the porous area. The results of this study suggest a great possibility of utilizing it in actual clinical setting as a bone substitution.
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