Papers by Keyword: Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)

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Authors: Willy Stevanus, Yi Jiun Peter Lin
Abstract: The research studies the characteristics of the vertical flow past a finite-length horizontal cylinder at low Reynolds numbers (ReD) from 250 to 1080. The experiments were performed in a vertical closed-loop water tunnel. Flow fields were observed by the particle tracer approach for flow visualization and measured by the Particle Image Velocimetry (P.I.V.) approach for velocity fields. The characteristics of vortex formation in the wake of the finite-length cylinder change at different regions from the tip to the base of it. Near the tip, a pair of vortices in the wake was observed and the size of the vortex increased as the observed section was away from the tip. Around a distance of 3 diameters of the cylinder from its tip, the vortex street in the wake was observed. The characteristics of vortex formation also change with increasing Reynolds numbers. At X/D = -3, a pair of vortices was observed in the wake for ReD = 250, but as the ReD increases the vortex street was observed at the same section. The vortex shedding frequency is analyzed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Experimental results show that the downwash flow affects the vortex shedding frequency even to 5 diameters of the cylinder from its tip. The interaction between the downwash flow and the Von Kármán vortex street in the wake of the cylinder is presented in this paper.
Authors: Ling Fu Kong, Wei Hang Kong, Ying Wei Li, Cong Zhang, Sheng Xu Du
Abstract: In this paper, an improved PIV algorithm is proposed for the velocity field of oil-water two-phase dispersed flow in horizontal pipe. In the proposed PIV algorithm, interrogation windows are overlapped by 50% in all iterations other than just overlapped in the final iteration. And what’s still different is that the interrogation window can also be a rectangular window just as [64 64; 64 64; 32 32; 32 32; 32 16;]. What’s more, if any element of the final interrogation window is different from the penultimate iteration, there is going to be another interrogation with the last interrogation window size, which can reduce the false vectors. Experimental results show that velocity measurements of oil-water two-phase flow can be realized by this advanced PIV algorithm with high accuracy. At the same time, it provides the basis for further studying the application of PIV in velocity measurements of oil-water two-phase flow.
Authors: Han Seo Ko, Yong Jae Kim, Oh Chae Kwon, Koji Okamoto
Abstract: Velocity and density distributions of a high-speed and initial CO2 jet flow have been analyzed simultaneously by a developed three-dimensional digital speckle tomography and a particle image velocimetry (PIV). Three high-speed cameras have been used for the tomography and the PIV since a shape of a nozzle for the jet flow is asymmetric and the initial flow is fast and unsteady. The speckle movements between no flow and CO2 jet flow have been obtained by a cross-correlation tracking method so that those distances can be transferred to deflection angles of laser rays for density gradients. The three-dimensional density fields for the high-speed CO2 jet flow have been reconstructed from the deflection angles by the real-time tomography method, and the two-dimensional velocity fields have been calculated by the PIV method simultaneously.
Authors: Toshihiko Shibuya, Mohammad Saeed Sepasy, Koichi Mizutani, Nobuhito Yoshihara, Ji Wang Yan, Tsunemoto Kuriyagawa
Abstract: Thick films are needed in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) as insulation, piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials. To form the thick film, powder jet deposition (PJD) method has been proposed. In the PJD process, microparticles are sprayed out from nozzle under the conditions of room temperature and atmospheric pressure, and make a film on the substrate. We have developed a new jet mechanism of double-nozzle type, and reported its results previously [1]. In this study, we optimized the shape of the nozzle through investigating the influence of different dimensions and shape of the nozzle on the particles blasting velocity. As a result, it is found that nozzle diameter has a large affect on particles velocity.
Authors: E.A. Rahim, Hemarani Dorairaju, Norzilawati Asmuin, M.H.A.R. Mantari
Abstract: In recent years, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) machining is regarded as a promising method for reducing machining cost and cutting fluid, while improving cutting performance. However the effectiveness and the working principle of MQL are still questionable with very few explanations provided. The aim of this study is to determine the optimum distance between the nozzle and tool tip and appropriate flow pattern of the mist flow for minimum quantity lubricant using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Computer Fluid Dynamic (CFD) for optimizing the spraying conditions thus reducing the lubricant consumption. The spray from the nozzle with outlet diameter of 2.5mm is analysed using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to measure the mist flow velocity and identify the flow pattern. The input pressure of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4MPa will be discharged throughout the experiment. Higher pressure produce more mass flow rate which helps in reducing the cutting force and cutting temperature efficiently and prolong tool life. Thus the appropriate distance can reduce lubricant consumption and increase the cooling and lubricating ability with best nozzle position. The applied distance increases the efficiencies of MQL applied during machining process.
Authors: Normayati Nordin, Zainal Ambri Abdul Karim, Safiah Othman, Vijay R. Raghavan
Abstract: Various diffuser types characterized by the geometry are introduced in the flow line to recover the energy. A 3-D turning diffuser is a type of diffuser that its cross-section diffuses in all 3 directions of axes, i.e. x, y and z. In terms of applicability, a 3-D turning diffuser offers compactness and more outlet-inlet configurations over a 2-D turning diffuser. However, the flow within a 3-D turning diffuser is expected to be more complex which susceptible to excessive losses. As yet there is no established guideline that can be referred to choose a 3-D turning diffuser with an optimum performance. This paper aims to investigate the effects of varying inflow Reynolds number (Rein) on the performance of 3-D turning diffuser with 90o angle of turn. The outlet pressure recovery (Cp) and flow uniformity (σu) of 3-D turning diffuser with an area ratio (AR = 2.16) and outlet-inlet configurations (W2/W1 = 1.44, X2/X1 = 1.5), operated at inflow Reynolds number of Rein = 5.786E+04 - 1.775E+05 have been experimentally tested. The experimental rig was developed by incorporating several features of low subsonic wind tunnel. This was mainly to produce a perfect fully developed and uniform flow entering diffuser. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to examine the flow quality, and a digital manometer was used to measure the average static pressure of the inlet and outlet of turning diffuser. There is a promising improvement in terms of flow uniformity when a 3-D turning diffuser is used instead of a 2-D turning diffuser with the same AR. An unexpected trend found with a drop of pressure recovery at maximum operating condition of Rein = 1.775E+05 shall require further investigations. The results obtained from this study will be in future used to validate the numerical codes. Upon successful validation, several other configurations will be numerically tested in order to establish the guidelines in the form of mathematical models.
Authors: Yeon Ho Lee, Kyung Won Kim, Alexandr Kvon, Moon Kyu Kwak, Choon Young Lee, Gyu Man Kim, Cheol Woo Park
Abstract: The flow structure inside a water basin that, serves as a water tank of a modeled washer system with an immersed coiled heater and air supply nozzle is investigated experimentally. To obtain the flow velocity field, particle image velocimetry is employed, and different view-point sections are analyzed. A large-scale vertical flow structure, which is attributed to the strong air jet flow enhancement, causes the development of a 3D mixing layer in the entire flow regime. Although a coiled heater can provide buoyancy to the working fluid, the bubbly flow structure significantly dominates this stage by supplying air from the bottom nozzles.
Authors: Sven Eck, J.P. Mogeritsch, Andreas Ludwig
Abstract: 3D samples of NH4Cl-H2O solutions were solidified under defined experimental conditions. The occurring melt convection was investigated by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The occurrence of NH4Cl crystals was observed optically and first attempts were made to quantitatively measure its number density, size distribution and sedimentation rate by PIV and Particle Tracking (PT). In order to prove the reproducibility of the results several experimental runs with equal and slightly modified conditions were analyzed.
Authors: Feng Ling Yang, Shen Jie Zhou, Gui Chao Wang
Abstract: The turbulent flow in stirred tank is highly complicated and anisotropic, especially when the macro-instability (MI) are involved. In this work, the numerical simulation method of the eccentric agitation was established based on the detached eddy simulation (DES) model to study the MI in an eccentric stirred tank. The turbulent flow in the eccentrically located Rushton turbine stirred tank was numerically investigated. The rotation of the impeller was simulated by the transient sliding mesh (SM) method. The effect of eccentricity, impeller Reynolds number and impeller-tank diameter ratio were studied in order to quantify the MI frequency. PIV experiments were performed to validate the DES results and frequency analyses were applied to the obtained time series of the velocity recordings. It was found that the flow field in eccentrically stirred tank are highly unsteady and is subject to MI with varying period less than 10 blade passage period. Good agreements have been found between the DES and PIV results, both indicate that the dominant frequency of MI increases linearly with the Reynolds number, increases with the impeller-tank diameter ratio and decreases with the eccentricity. According to the agreements between the experimental and simulation results, it can be concluded that the combination of DES and SM is suitable for the prediction of the MI phenomenon in stirred tanks.
Authors: Chun Lei Shao, Bo Qin Gu, Ye Chen
Abstract: Centrifugal pump is a kind of important industrial installation for fluid delivery. The research on the unsteady flow in centrifugal pump is very meaningful to reducing vibration. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) system and test pump designed for PIV measurement were introduced. The experimental scheme and the methods of numerical simulation were discussed. PIV technique was used to measure the unsteady velocity field near the volute tongue under the mode of external synchronization. The unsteady pressure field was simulated by using Sliding Mesh (SM) model provided by Fluent. The results show that the velocity and pressure fluctuate periodically with the rotation of impeller. Partial fluid flows back to the impeller passage and the velocity in the inlet of diffusion tube decreases significantly due to shunt effect of the volute tongue. On the section VIII, the magnitude and fluctuation range of velocity show a decreasing trend in radial direction. The fluctuation of circumferential velocity is related to the position of high-speed flow in impeller passage, and the fluctuation of radial velocity is influenced by blade interference and Coriolis force. The static pressure increases and the dynamic pressure decreases in the radial direction of volute. The velocity and the pressure on the section VIII and the outlet total pressure fluctuate intensively when the blade tail end passes the section VIII and the volute tongue. The vibration of pump can be reduced by increasing the volute tongue mounting angle and decreasing the blade outlet mounting angle properly.
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