Papers by Keyword: Plastic

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Authors: Clark Hyland, W. George Ferguson
Abstract: A method for assessing likelihood of brittle fracture in cyclically loaded steel assemblies subjected to inelastic strains is proposed. The method proposed is based upon relationships between monotonic and cyclic endurance of steel specimens proposed by Kuwamura and Takagi, and analysis of crack tip opening displacement (CTOD), Charpy V-Notch (CVN) and tensile results of pre-strained, fatigue pre-cracked and side-grooved specimens of constructional steel. The proposed method allows the influence of displacement ductility classification (as used in seismic design of structures), notch geometry, and cyclic strain amplitude history on crack initiation to be incorporated into a single design analysis approach. Small scale CTOD testing of steel materials with various levels of pre-strain may be used to identify stress intensity and crack tip displacement at crack initiation for use in the analysis. The integration of a fracture mechanics based approach to analysing stress intensity in conjunction with assembly plastic deformation characteristics derived from finite element modeling offers the promise of an improved approach to steel assembly design for cyclic plastic endurance and should result in more reliable structures and reduced need for large scale testing. This has particular relevance to the structural design of seismic resisting steelwork assemblies which are expected to develop dependable ductile behaviour under high strain variable amplitude cyclic actions.
Authors: Chun Tung Chen
Abstract: The design of folding chairs has long been focused on the low-price market targeting at mass gathering with high demand. Following the changes in society, a number of public have accustomed to use the folding chairs as household use, whereas the household folding chair with mid to high price range also emerge from the market eventually. The progress in science and technology, plus the continuous enhancement in plastic molding development and the injection molding technology as well as to the diversity in plastic materials, have all driven to the use of plastic folding chair. Nonetheless, the rise of consumer awareness and enhanced demand for product quality from the public have shifted the design of plastic folding chair from general folding chair to the designers perception oriented chairs. Hence, the study applied quality function deployment to establish user demand for plastic folding chairs, inducing the five expectations for plastic folding chair through the procedures in quality function deployment, namely into “aesthetics,” “convenience,” “structural safety,” “comfort,” and “environmental protection.” These five demands are placed into the House of Quality and transformed into the design elements and benchmark. The research results show that the first three projects and weights for customer requirements are sorted in the order of “parts unlikely to fall off (6.8%),” “non-pinching during use (6.7%)” and “ergonomic considerations (6.5%).” Among the parameter characteristics of design, the first three projects and weights are sorted in order of “use sliders or pullers to prevent pinching (10%),” “no screws used (9.4%)” and “holistic design of structure and form (8.5%).” The designers can fully understand customer demand through this transformation and the designers can add the above demand quality into the design of plastic folding chair during the conceptual design, attempt to assure the new product design can solve the existing inconvenience. The study analysis and results can be proposed as specific reference for the relevant design developers in designing plastic folding chairs.
Authors: Jing Jing Wang, De Xin Hou, Bei Lei Wu, Shu Liang Ye, Heng Yang
Abstract: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a technique that shows many possibilities in the field of identifying chemicals and materials. Plastic food packaging is not excluded of this practical application. In the current recycling system, a plastic identification must be done to avoid the hidden danger caused by defective goods. In an attempt to develop an alternative plastic identification technology, four plastics are collected including Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene (PE), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), and Polystyrene (PS), and a qualitative model with Factor Analysis method will be built. Performance of the model varies substantially if wave bands and multivariate data analysis techniques change. When the wavelength ranges from 4700 to 10000cm-1, plastic food packaging whose spectrum data are optimized by first derivative + vector normalization with 5 factors can be successfully identified, with which a classification error of less than 4% can be reached within the validation set of 100 spectrum. The results obtained indicate that the method proposed in this paper has a real potential for future plastic classification uses.
Authors: Torsten Sjögren, Per Eric Persson, Peter Vomacka
Abstract: During the last years the use of digital image correlation techniques (DIC) has become wide spread within different areas of research. One area in which these techniques are used is in the analysis of deformation of engineering materials. By the analysis of a set of successive images taken during a tensile test DIC makes it possible to determine how the deformation is localized. The observed local strains are often several times higher than the global strain measured by standard strain gauges. In this study, a set of compacted graphite cast irons (CGI) with different ratios of pearlite to ferrite have been examined by the use of DIC. In contrast to the normal use of DIC, where a pattern is sprayed on the tensile test sample as a reference for the determination of deformation taking place between successive images, the materials natural microstructural pattern has been used in this study. The use of the natural microstructural pattern makes it possible to study how the macroscopic deformation is accommodated within the different phases in the CGI studied. It is shown that the graphite phase accommodates a large portion of the strain and that the soft ferrite is strained more than the stronger, less ductile pearlite. The local strain of the observed area might be up to ten times higher than the global strain measured. The use of DIC improves the understanding of the deformation behaviour of compacted graphite cast irons and will be a useful tool when validating future finite element analyses of the micro-mechanical properties of cast irons.
Authors: Fang Wang, Zheng Ji Li
Abstract: Plastic and steel sleeve contact force distribution, widely used in oil drilling mechanics, syringes, aerospace and so on. In this paper, plastic and steel ANSYS simulation compression sleeve contact deformation and contact force distribution state. Provide a valuable reference for the study of contact force fields Introduction.
Authors: Natália Jasminská, Tomáš Brestovič, Michal Puškár
Abstract: The article in question concerns the proposal of a pressure vessel for a water heater made of plastic materials. At present, new materials and technologies are coming to the fore where the product price, above all, plays an important role, taking into account the relevant physical and strength properties. The pressure vessels of larger volume (more than 10 litres) water heaters are only manufactured using steel materials under European Union conditions. The proposal considers the use of an alternative material, namely plastic. By optimising the proposal – by the use of plastic materials – it would be possible to achieve a financial economy, since plastic is a good thermal insulating material and does not require enamelling or the use of a cathode protection. There are plastics available on the market which meet the requirements of heat resistance and have a relatively high tensile strength. One of these proposed materials is Noryl GFN1630V which contains 30 % of glass fibre and was chosen as the optimal material. By making strength calculations in the ANSYS programme, water heater pressure vessels were proposed.
Authors: M. Mehrara, Mohammad Javad Nategh
Abstract: The bending of plates on rubber pad is a relatively new method used for roll bending of thin plates in recent years. In the present work the problem of plastic deformation of thin plates was analyzed. The governing differential equations for the plate’s elastic and plastic zones were derived. An analytical-numerical solution to these equations was subsequently presented. In addition, the equations were solved for a given problem and the effect of indentation depth of plate on its bending radius was investigated. A relationship has been proposed to correlate these parameters. This relationship is a powerful tool in controlling the process and process planning. This tool helps the operator set the indentation depth to a predefined amount in order that the plate to be bent by a given radius, without any try and error effort. The results were verified by experiment.
Authors: Staš Ondrej, Ernest Gondár, Marek Martančík, Mário Buranský
Abstract: The work describes the application of hot gas powder sintering using robotic positioning system with special equipment, designed for this new way of manufacturing technology. Material used for this type of sintering is recycled dust portion of PET plastics, which proposes potential possibility of costs reduction for this kind of production technology, which is focused on the use unusable materials. This opens new potential trends in robotics application, even in a new technology, suitable for rapid prototyping in mechanical engineering. It is sintering of the plastics powder using hot gas, usually nitrogen or any inert gas, to propose the best material structure without any deformation.
Authors: Hui Ting Gao, Song He Meng, Zhan Yi Cao, Li Na Xu
Abstract: According to the dissipation energy principles of plastic Three-dimensional finite element analysis of antiseismic capability of Fe/Zn composite by the finite element software ANSYS. It is the very first time to study responds process of earthquake of metal layer composite. Observed in “Time Hist Postpro” that biggest stress of Fe is lower than the yield intensity of Fe, the biggest stress of Zn is bigger than the yield intensity, Fe supports load and Zn absorbs energy are proved. It is provided to the theories for the system of the new material according to.
Authors: Yue Lei, Lun Li
Abstract: Mostly used in packing and outdoor facilities in the early stage, wood-plastic composites are gradually applied to other design sectors thanks to their advantageous features including cost efficiency, environmental protection, recyclability as well as being easy to be processed and fabricated. The application of this kind of green and new material in the exhibition design sector will be beneficial to developing the standardized structure and rapid fabrication in the exhibition design to save the project construction material costs and shorten erection time. In this article, the feasibility and ecological significance of using wood-plastic composites in the exhibition sector are explored from the aspects of the physical and chemical properties of the wood-plastic composites as well as their processing methods.
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