Papers by Keyword: Powder Compaction

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Authors: Kuniaki Dohda, Zhrgang Wang, Yukinori Taniguchi
Authors: S.S.M. Nor, Mujibur M. Rahman, A. T. A. Rahman, F. Tarlochan, H. Y. Rahman
Abstract: The strength of a green compacts formed through warm powder compaction route is strongly dependent on the forming load and temperature. As the forming load increases, the powder particles move from its initial position by sliding among them and die wall. This movement results in new arrangement and packing order of the particles. However, due to this movement, pores among the particles are generated that affects the mechanical properties of the green compacts. Having pores in green compacts lead to strain intensification at ligaments between pores during sintering at later stage, hence serve as areas for crack initiation. Therefore, as the powder forming relates directly to the load and temperature, strength to porosity relationship has to be analyzed based on those parameters. This paper presents the effect of porosity to the strength of green compacts formed at different load and temperature (70 kN to 130 kN; 30°C to 200°C). The bending strengths of green compacts are measured while Scanning Electron Microscopy is used for porosity evaluation. It has been found from the results that porosity and strength are related to each other at all forming parameters. In addition, high forming load and temperature give better strength due to porosity reduction.
Authors: Walter R. Ruziwa, Alan C.F. Cocks
Abstract: In this paper we present an anisotropic compaction model based on a generic modeling framework. The model is a generalization of Hill’s anisotropic model to compressible materials and reduces to a Cam-clay type model in the isotropic limit. The model has been calibrated using experimental data for a commercial steel powder obtained from a computer controlled triaxial cell in which the yield surface was probed following loading along different paths in stress and strain space. Closed-form analytical expressions are presented for the yield surface as a function of the inelastic strain. The model has been implemented in the general purpose finite element code ABAQUS. Simulations are presented which explore the effect of a detailed structure of the constitutive law on the compaction response.
Authors: Chuan Yu Wu, A.C. Bentham, A. Mills
Abstract: Powder compaction is a well-established process for manufacturing a wide range of products, including engineering components and pharmaceutical tablets. During powder compaction, the compacts (green bodies or tablets) produced need to sustain their integrity during the process and possess certain strength. Any defects are hence not tolerable during the production. Therefore, understanding failure mechanisms during powder compaction is of practical significance. In this paper, the mechanisms for one typical failure, capping, during the compaction of pharmaceutical powders were explored. Both experimental and numerical investigations were performed. For the experimental study, an instrumented hydraulic press (a compaction simulator) with an instrumented die has been used, which enable the material properties to be extracted for real pharmaceutical powders. Close attentions have been paid to the occurrence of capping during the compaction. An X-ray Computed Microtomography system has also used to examine the internal failure patterns of the tablets produced. Finite element (FE) methods have also been used to analyse the powder compaction. The experimental and numerical studies have shown that the shear bands developed at the early stage of unloading appear to be responsible for the occurrence of capping. It has also been found that the capping patterns depend on the compact shape.
Authors: Sergio Luiz Mineiro, Maria do Carmo de Andrade Nono
Abstract: The densification behavior of mixtures of nanocrystalline and conventional microcrystalline zirconia powders undergoing uniaxial pressing was investigated. The mixtures were obtained with ratios between 10 and 80 wt.% of nanoparticulate powder added to the microparticulate powder. Nitrogen and Mercury porosimetry were used to measure the pore size distributions of the compacts. The powders and the fracture surfaces of the compacts were observed via SEM. The results showed that compacts of the powder mixtures attain higher densities during pressing than the unmixed powders. The powder mixture with 80 wt. % of nanoparticles showed the better particle packing efficiency. A comparison between density values of uniaxial and isostatic pressing also was done and indicated that the best results were obtained by the isostatic method.
Authors: Andrey Molotnikov, Rimma Lapovok, Tao Peng, Yuri Estrin
Abstract: Densification of metallic powders by means of extrusion is regarded as a very attractive processing technique that allows obtaining a high level of relative density of the compact. However, the uniformity of the relative density depends on that of strain distribution and on the processing parameters. Several variants of extrusion can be used for compaction of metal particulates, including the conventional extrusion (CE) and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP), often referred to as equal-channel angular extrusion. Each of these processes has certain advantages and drawbacks with respect to compaction. A comparative study of these two extrusion processes influencing the relative density of compacts has been conducted by numerical simulation using commercial finite element software DEFORM2D. The results have been validated by experiments with titanium and magnesium powders and chips.
Authors: Reza Kebriaei, Jan Frischkorn, Stefanie Reese, Heiko Moll, Werner Theisen, Tobias Husmann, Horst Meier
Abstract: In this paper, a new hybrid production technique is presented. It exploits the advantage of high temperatures and high forces in the ring rolling process. This manufacturing technique is not only suitable to increase the ring’s diameter but also to apply and compact powder metallurgical multi-functional coatings onto solid substrate rings with the same process. In order to design this new process parameterized 2D and 3D FE models are created in ABAQUS/EXPLICIT on the basis of a viscoplastic material model formulation. The control capability of the conventional control mechanisms are based on the assumption of volume consistency. However, this assumption is not well applicable for a ring furnished by multi-functional surfaces with non-isochoric plastic deformation behavior. Therefore, this paper deals with the implementation of a new control mechanism. Finally the paper is concluded with the integration of heat treatment of the rolled ring into the subsequent cooling process.
Authors: William H. Peter, Wei Chen, Yukinori Yamamoto, R. Dehoff, T. Muth, Stephen D. Nunn, Jim O. Kiggans, Michael B. Clark, Adrian S. Sabau, Sarma Gorti, Craig A. Blue, James C. Williams
Abstract: Utilization of titanium components made by powder metallurgy methods has had limited acceptance largely due to the high cost of titanium (Ti) powder. There has been renewed interest in lower cost economical powders and several Ti reduction methods that produce a particulate product show promise. This talk summarizes work done at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to consolidate these economical powders into mill products. Press and sinter consolidation, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and direct roll consolidation to make sheet have been explored. The characteristics of the consolidated products will be described as a function of the consolidation parameters.
Authors: Ryuichi Tomoshige, Masahiro Fujita
Authors: Monica Sas-Boca
Abstract: Friction between powder and tools plays a major role during cold compaction of PM components with results on the inhomogeneous densification. The present work deals with a new method of compaction for PM components by using the friction force between die and compacts as an active pressing force in order to reduce the density gradient. The proposal technique consists in moving the container of the die, during pressing stage to the punch direction with a well determined speed. As a result, the friction force acts in the same sense as the pressing load with better distribution of powder flow during compaction. The experimental results of compaction parameters versus density have proved the decreasing of the density gradient by increasing die/punch speed rate. A sharp density gradient on the specimen height moving container contrarily to the punch.
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