Papers by Keyword: Reactive Sputtering

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Authors: I. Radović, Yves Serruys, Yves Limoge, Olivier Jaoul, N.Ž Romčević, S. Poissonnet, N. Bibić
Abstract: SiO2 layers were deposited by reactive d.c ion sputtering (using 1keV Ar+ ion gun) from a high purity silicon target in an oxygen ambient. The base pressure in the deposition chamber was 4.7·10-9mbar, and the substrate temperature was held at 550 °C. The argon partial pressure during ion gun operation was 1·10-3mbar. Structural characterization of the films was performed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS analysis), electron microprobe analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis) and Raman spectroscopy. Reactive sputtering proved to be efficient for the deposition of silica at an oxygen partial pressure of 2·10-4mbar and an electrical current on the target of 5.5mA.
Authors: Yu Dong Xia, Jie Xiong, Fei Zhang, Yan Xue, Kai Hu, Xiao Hui Zhao, Bo Wan Tao
Abstract: Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films were deposited on Y2O3/Ni-5at.%W substrates serving as the barrier layers for coated conductors by reel-to-reel direct-current (D.C.) magnetron reactive sputtering. The deposition parameters, such as the substrate temperature and tape moving speed, were systematically investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that optimized YSZ/Y2O3 buffer layers showed excellent in-plane and out-of-plane textures. Atomic force microscope revealed a smooth, dense and crack-free surface. The subsequent CeO2 cap layer and 1μm-thick YBa2Cu3O7-δ film sequentially prepared, showing the critical current density Jc under 77K, self-field of 1.4MA/cm2.
Authors: Tsutomu Sonoda, Akira Watazu, Kiyotaka Katou, Tadashi Asahina
Abstract: Coating of austentic stainless steel substrates with Ti/O compositionally gradient film was examined using reactive DC sputtering technique, in order to improve not only the abrasion resistance of the stainless steel but also the adhesion between the deposited film and the substrate with preserving the high hardness of such a hard ceramic coating as titanium oxide coating. The deposition of Ti/O compositional gradient films were realized by varying continuously the oxygen content in Ar-O2 sputter-gas during the reactive sputtering. The obtained films were appeared to be uniform and adhesive, while Ti-O compositional constant (i.e. non-gradient) films which were deposited by reactive DC sputtering under the same sputtering conditions except for the Ar-O2 gas mixing condition, i.e., with the oxygen content in the gas mixture constant, peeled off partly. According to AES in-depth profiles, the oxygen (O) concentration in the obtained film gradually decreased in depth direction from the surface toward the substrate, confirming that Ti/O compositional films had formed on the stainless steel. On the basis of XRD, it was found that not only hcp alpha-titanium and titanium oxide (anatase) but also some types of suboxides had formed in the gradient films. Furthermore the gradient films approximately indicated Hv600 which was much higher than that of the stainless steel substrate. Therefore the abrasion resistance of the stainless steel and the adhesion at the interface were expected to be improved at the same time.
Authors: S. Rossi, L. Fedrizzi, Y. Massiani, F. Vacandio, P.L. Bonora
Authors: Ying Huang, Jin Yan Zhao, Cai Hong Chen, Yi Chen Zhang
Abstract: During the reactive sputtering process, due to the hysteresis effect, the sputtering state should be maintained in the transition region of the hysteresis curve which can used to obtain stoichiometric compound films at a high deposition rate. If sputtering state changes, it is impossible to make the sputtering state step back to the original point by manually control the process parameters, because the hysteresis is irreversible. Thus it requires a method of fast feedback to control the sputtering power and the reaction gas flow rate into the chamber. In this paper the PEM (plasma emission monitor) control system and the single neuron self-adaptive PID algorithm have been designed to maintain the sputtering state in proper condition, namely preventing the target from poisoned in the reactive sputtering. The signal acquisition and the controller design were the major parts of the PEM system. The signal acquisition was realized by the optical emission spectrometer. And the single neuron self-adaptive PID controller has been designed in the paper. Using the MATLAB software, the simulation experiments have been done. The output waveforms showed that using traditional non-adaptive PID control algorithm, the overshoot is over 6% and the regulation time is over 1.8s, but using single neuron self-adaptive PID algorithm the overshoot 0 and regulation time 0.5s. Monitoring the target spectral intensity at various reaction gas flow rate, several conclusions could be obtained. The overshoot 6% indicated that the reactive gas flow into the chamber was excessive, the target was poisoned and the sputtering state in chemical mode. And while the overshoot was zero which indicated that the target poisoned was avoided and the reaction ran in defined condition. The PEM using the single neuron self-adaptive PID algorithm responded faster than that using the traditional PID algorithm. The PEM system designed in the paper can effectively avoid the target poisoned and make the reactive sputtering maintain at an ideal state.
Authors: Yen Lin Huang, Ying Chieh Lee, Du Cheng Tsai, Fuh Sheng Shieu
Abstract: Thin films of zinc titanate (ZnTiO3) can be produced on Si(100) substrates at room temperature by DC reactive magnetron co-sputtering with Ti, Zn as the target and O2 as a reactive gas. In this work, the influence of annealing temperature (500–900 °C) on microstructure and formation of ZnTiO3 thin films were investigated. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. As-deposited films have an amorphous columnar structure. The crystallization phenomenon was observed with annealing temperature of 500 °C. After 600 °C 2 h annealing, crystalline phase with ZnTiO3 (hexagonal) and TiO2 (rutile) could be obtained and coexisted. Furthermore, the unit cell size of the ZnTiO3 and TiO2 crystal is a = ~5.062 Å, c = ~ 13.87 Å and a = ~4.58 Å, c = ~ 2.95 Å.
Authors: Wantanee Hincheeranun, Montri Aiempanakit, Kamon Aiempanakit, Mati Horprathum, Viyapon Patthanasetakul, Noppadon Nuntawong, Chanunthorn Chananonnawathorn, Saksorn Limwichean, Pitak Eiamchai
Abstract: In this work, we investigated V2O5 thin films prepared by a DC pulse reactive magnetron sputtering at ambient conditions. The effects of oxygen flow rates during the film deposition and post annealing in air atmosphere were explored. The V2O5 thin films were sputtered from vanadium target onto silicon wafer and glass slide substrates at room temperature. The as-deposited V2O5 thin films were annealed at 200°C under air atmosphere. The films were then examined for their crystallinity, physical microstructures, and optical transmission. The crystallinity and morphology of the films were investigated by grazing incident x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The optical transmission was determined by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. The results showed that the as-deposited films were amorphous, whereas the post annealed films indicated V2O5 phase in all samples. The increase in the oxygen flow rates during the deposition led to the decrease in the deposition rate, film thickness, and film surface roughness. In addition, the oxygen flow can increase the average transmission of the V2O5 thin films. The effects of the annealing treatment of the optical transmission spectra will be discussed.
Authors: Takashi Harumoto, Shinji Muraishi, Ji Shi, Yoshio Nakamura
Abstract: Preferred orientation of AlN film has been changed from random to c-axis textured by inserting the ultra-thin Pt/AlN underlayer. The ultra-thin Pt underlayer also exhibits the same effect on the preferred orientation control of AlN film. According to intensity distributions of diffracted X-ray collected as the function of 2θ and ψ on these films, it is clearly shown that c-axis of AlN is altered from titled to the surface normal. AlN film and AlN films with underlayers demonstrate tensile stress, and it can be reduced by inserting underlayers. The effects of underlayers on the development of the preferred orientation and the reduction of stresses are similar to that of decreasing sputtering gas pressure.
Authors: Richard P. Vinci, T. Bannuru, Seung Min Hyun, Walter L. Brown
Abstract: Pt-IrOx and Au-V2O5 thin films were created by magnetron co-sputtering from multiple targets in an Ar-O2 mixture. Successful Pt-IrOx production required high O2 partial pressure and slow deposition rate followed by post-annealing in pure O2. In contrast, deposition of Au-V2O5 films required relatively low O2 partial pressure, and did not need any post-anneal. These different strategies for forming oxide dispersion strengthened films in a multi-target reactive sputtering configuration are directly related to the thermodynamic characteristics of the two materials systems. The most important characteristics are the low equilibrium oxygen solubility in Pt and Au, and the different degrees of oxygen affinity by Ir and V.
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