Papers by Keyword: Rice Husk

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Authors: Zhong Qing Zhang, Chi Zhang, Hong Lei, Ling Ling Zhao, Rui Huan Yang, Chuang Shuai, Ji Chao Chen, Peng Qu
Abstract: Rice husk is a plentiful agricultural byproduct. In this paper, rice husk (RH) surface was first treated by NaOH/urea into a modified-rice husk(MRH), then the MRH was used as a new template for polymerization of acrylamide(AM) on MRH, as a result, the product named as MRH-g-AM, was formed by the free-radical initiation in aqueous solution using ammonium persulfate as an initiator. The polymer grafted on the MRH was considered as a novel copolymer which was thereafter analyzed by FTIR and SEM. The product was washed thoroughly with distilled water to remove all unreactive chemicals. The results showed that MRH was successfully reacted with AM. The SEM images indicated that MRH-g-AM appeared distinct cracks and formed a loosen structure in comparison with RH, indicating the facilitation of heavy metal ion adsorption in the future wastewater treatment.
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Authors: Xiao Yu Ma, Li Li Wang, Su Ping Cui, Ya Li Wang
Abstract: In the present work, a green and sustainable route for preparation of hydrochars and silica from a bio-resource (rice husk) under low temperature and atmospheric pressure was described. This route was achieved with the catalysis of sulfuric acid and NH4F. The sphere-like carbon materials with regular size of about 500nm were obtained at 95°C for 6 h when the acid concentration was 42% and 52%. The obtained yield of silica reached up to 94.6% and the particle size was 50-60nm. The morphology of the hydrochars was controllable by changing the concentration of sulfuric acid. Microstructure of the precipitated silica powder was carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The preparation conditions were determined and the recyclability of the process was confirmed experimentally. All the reactants and byproducts were recyclable in this process, without the waste emissions.
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Authors: Yue Fang Chen, Si Yu Xu, Hao Guo, Hao Xu, Xiao Yan Qu, Li Xia Cao
Abstract: After carbonized at different temperatures, agricultural waste-rice-husk, becomes carbonized, which has further been modified at different pH values. Through some static tests, we studied the treatment efficiency for the wastewater--containing mechanical lubricants- by the carbonized rice husk at different amounts of carbonized rice husk, different treatment times and different processing temperatures. The results showed that the optimal carbonization temperature of the rice husk is around 500°C, and the pH modification’s impact was not notable. The optimal conditions of the treatment of wastewater containing 10% mechanical lubricant (volume percentage, made by Shell), were found at the amount of 6g/l carbonized rice husk, with the processing time of 15 min, and the temperature of 15°C. Under that condition, the oil removal rate could reach 88.38% and adsorption capacity of the carbonized rice husk is 22.32ml/g; however, when referring to Mobil (model: 20W-40), the oil removal rate could reach 94.24%, which is considerably superior to other kinds adsorbents. Treatment of oily wastewater by carbonized rice husk is in conformity with the second order kinetic equation, and the related coefficient is 0.9671; besides, the adsorption thermodynamic analysis shows that the adsorption process can be spontaneous at the low temperature, which therefore can be used for the oily waste water treatment.
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Authors: Xiao Qing Luo, Xiao Yan Lin, Xue Gang Luo, An Kai Luo, Xuan Liang
Abstract: This paper reports the feasibility of using rice husk to remove Ag+ from synthetic wastewater. Effect of various adsorption parameters, namely, pH, adsorbent dose, initial silver concentration and contact time has been studied in batch systems. The results indicated that rice husk offered high removal efficiency, fast adsorption rate and high uptake capacity for Ag+ ions. The equilibrium was attained within 20 min and the maximum removal efficiency at 11g/L rice husk and at pH 2 was found to be 99.76%. The kinetic data was fitted well to pseudo-second order model. The isotherm adsorption data was well described by the Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum uptake capacity of Ag+ ions onto rice husk was found to be 42.43 mg/g.
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Authors: Xiao Lan SONG, Ying Zhang, Cheng Yin Yan, Wen Juan Jiang, Hong Jiang Xie
Abstract: The adsorption performance of mercury ion onto activated carbon prepared from rice husk with NaOH was carried out at initial concentration of 100 mg/L. The activated carbon obtained at 800 °C possessed the outstanding specific surface area of 2786 m2/g. And the results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of Hg2+ was recorded as 342.0 mg/g due to abundant micropores of 1.076 nm. In addition, the adsorption data were well explained by the Langmuir model with the monolayer adsorption capacity of 555.6 mg/g.
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Authors: Mohd Faisal Taha, Anis Shuib, Maizatul Shima Shaharun, Azry Borhan
Abstract: The potential of rice husk-based activated carbon (RHAC) as an alternative low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Ni2+ from aqueous solution was studied. RHAC was prepared via chemical treatment using NaOH followed by the carbonization process. The textural properties of rice husk-based activated carbon, i.e. surface area (253 m2/g) and pore volume (0.17 cm2/g), were determined by N2 adsorption. The adsorption studies to remove Ni2+ from aqueous solution using RHAC were carried out at a fixed initial concentration of Ni2+ (150 ppm) with varying RHAC as a function of contact time at room temperature. The concentration of Ni2+ was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The maximum removal of Ni2+ was increased from 40% to 89% when the amount of RHAC was increased from 0.1 g to 0.5 g. The isotherm and kinetic analyses showed that equilibrium data of adsorption studies fitted well Langmuir, Freundlich and second order kinetic models.
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Authors: Mohd Faisal Taha, Anis Suhaila Shuib, Maizatul Shima Shaharun, Azry Borhan
Abstract: An attempt was made to study the potential of rice husk as an alternative cheap precursor for activated carbon to remove Ni2+ from aqueous solution. Rice husk was treated chemically (with NaOH) and physically (carbonization) to prepare rice husk based activated carbon (RHAC). The textural properties of RHAC, i.e. surface area (255 m2/g) and pore volume (0.17 cm2/g), were determined by N2 adsorption using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analyzer. RHAC was also characterized for its morphology and its elemental compositions. The adsorption studies for the removal of Ni2+ from aqueous solution were carried out using different dosage of RHAC as adsorbent as a function of varied contact time. The concentration of Ni2+ was determined by atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). The results obtained from adsorption studies indicate good potential of rice husk as a cheap precursor to produce activated carbon for the removal of Ni2+ from aqueous solution. The equilibrium data from adsorption studies fitted well the of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models.
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Authors: Mohd Faisal Taha, Ahmad S. Rosman, Maizatul S. Shaharun
Abstract: The potential of rice husk-based activated carbon as an alternative low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Pb (II) ion from aqueous solution was investigated. Rice husk-based activated carbon was prepared via chemical activation process using NaOH followed by the carbonization process at 500°C. Morphological analysis was conducted using field-emission scanning electron microscope /energy dispersive X-ray (FESEM/EDX) on three samples, i.e. raw rice husk, rice husk treated with NaOH and rice husk-based activated carbon. These three samples were also analyzed for their C, H, N, O and Si contents using CHN elemental analyzer and FESEM/EDX. The textural properties of rice husk-based activated carbon, i.e. surface area (253 m2/g) and pore volume (0.17 cm2/g), were determined by N2 adsorption. The adsorption studies using rice husk-based activated carbon as an adsorbent to remove Pb (II) ion from aqueous solution were carried out at a fixed initial concentration of Pb (II) ion (150 ppm) with varying adsorbent dose as a function of contact time at room temperature. The concentration of Pb (II) ion was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The removal of Pb (II) ion from aqueous solution increased from 35 % to 82 % when the amount of rice husk-based activated carbon was increased from 0.05 g to 0.30 g. The equilibrium data obtained from adsorption studies was found to fit both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms.
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Authors: Sirisart Ouajai, Riangploy Wanichayachart, Thapanee Suksomprasong, Atchara Pisitwinyoo
Abstract: This research focused on the bioethanol production from rice husk via enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of glucose product. Rice husks were ball-milled, alkali pretreated with 2 %(w/v) NaOH for 3 hours and regenerated by N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO)/H2O solution into Cellulose II structure. These processes were aimed to enhance the surface purity area and accessibility of enzyme, respectively. Rice husks were hydrolyzed with cellulase from Trichoderma reesei ATCC 26921 at various concentrations ranging from 10 to 40 FPU/g of rice husk. The maximum yields of glucose from alkali pretreated rice husk, ball-milled rice husk of sieve size 45-75 μm and regenerated rice husk were 7.13, 9.52 and 10.36 mg/mL, respectively. This was conducted at the enzyme concentration of 20 FPU/g of rice husk for 48 hours. The glucose product was fermented by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Safale US-05 at various concentrations ranging from 10 to 70 %(v/v). The maximum yields of ethanol products at 50 %(v/v) of yeast and 48 hours of fermentation from the alkali pretreated rice husk, ball-milled rice husk of sieve size 45-75 μm and regenerated rice husk were 44.36%, 68.79% and 89.11% of glucose respectively. The greater yield may be arise from an increase in surface area and the swollen cellulose structure of rice husk.
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Authors: Syamsul Hadi, Suyitno, Kinastryan Jita Kroda, Zainal Arifin, Kusbandriyo Hery
Abstract: This research is conducted for getting and examining bio-fuel from the process of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) using rice husk as raw material. The HTL process used ethanol as a solvent with concentration of 96%. Properties of the produced light fuels were examined on parameter such as water content, viscosity, calorific value, density, flash point, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The optimum yield 36.3 wt% of light fuel from HTL process of rice husk occurred at reactor temperature of 325°C and holding time of 45 minutes. Meanwhile, the optimum production of bio-fuel (light fuel + heavy fuel) was 69.3 wt% at reactor temperature of 325 °C and holding time of 30 minutes. The resulted light fuel has the calorivic value from 12.1 to 20.2 MJ/kg, viscosity from 1.11 to 1.6 cSt, and flash point from 14 to 29 °C. For the yield of bio-fuel from HTL process, the effect of reactor temperature was more pronounced than the effect of holding time. Further, the light fuels from HTL process with low water content are interesting objects as a fuel in internal combustion engines.
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