Papers by Keyword: Scale

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Authors: Xiao Na Liu, Jian Jun Wang, Teng Fei Zhang
Abstract: Bike sharing system is an important part of urban public transport system, mainly to undertake the function of connection and transfer with bus system, and connection with private car and satisfy the demand of citizen short-distance travel, and other functions. Setting bike sharing rental point is according to the planning of urban comprehensive transportation, using data on the residents travel , including travel rate, traffic structure, etc. and then to predict the proportion of future bike sharing to the total amount of travel, finally obtain bike sharing overall scale combining Bike sharing turn over rate.
Authors: Zheng Hua Liu, Li Han
Abstract: Kernel-based density estimation technique, especially Mean-shift based tracking technique, is a successful application to target tracking, which has the characteristics such as with few parameters, robustness, and fast convergence. However, classic Mean-shift based tracking algorithm uses fixed kernel-bandwidth, which limits the performance when the target’s orientation and scale change. An Improved adaptive kernel-based object tracking is proposed, which extend 2-dimentional mean shift to 3-dimentional, meanwhile combine multiple scale theory into tracking algorithm. Such improvements can enable the algorithm not only track zooming objects, but also track rotating objects. The experimental results validate that the new algorithm can adapt to the changes of orientation and scale of the target effectively.
Authors: Sanaz Ahmadzadeh Siyahrood, Arghavan Ebrahimi, Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad
Abstract: During recent years, several experiences have been executed for interfering in inefficient urban fabrics, all of them had been forced on the basis of centralized intervention approach; determining a territory as the project range, funding sources, ownership, execution, utilization, is a single process , the attribution of which could be found in several cases in the country. The important point in this regards which determines the future strategies is the performance process and method. The global examples and local experiences show that all approaches, plans and executive plans should be developed and materialized on the basis of “people participation” principle. This procedure is executable in various forms; reinforcement of existing buildings, renovation of single parcel and assemblage of small sized parcels are the methods that play important role in this process. The present paper studies different scales of “assemblage” as one of the methods of housing renovation and by using analytic hierarchy model AHP method proves that assemblage in urban block scale by citizenship participation could serve both as a tool for improving land distribution pattern, and, providing new opportunities for the city to develop. The indexes that are used in this survey were selected by literature review and attribution to several executive plan cases.
Authors: Li Yan Wu, Zhao Mei Qiu, Yu Qiu Song
Abstract: With development of solar technology, high absorbance is no longer a hard problem in solar heat utilization. Many solar absorbing coating can easily get absorbance over 90%, but the coating materials and their manufacturing processes may harm seriously to human and environment. A typical plateau butterfly-- Lycaenidae was studied with bionic method in this work. It has considerable solar absorbing capacity for the physical microstructure in its wing scales but not chemicals. The 3D microstructure of the wing scales was measured and analyzed with SEM (Scanning Electronic Microscope) and TEM (Transition Electronic Microscope). The solar absorbing mechanism of the ridge and bottom microstructure was analyzed respectively based on geometrical optics and photon crystal theories. This study may promote solar heat utilization through a bionic structural material way.
Authors: Shohei Nakakubo, Mikako Takeda, Takashi Onishi
Abstract: The boundary constants between internal and external oxidation of Si or Cr containing steels (Fe-Si alloys or Fe-Cr alloys) at 850°C were calculated in order to clarify the formation mechanism of fayalite scale (Fe2SiO4) or chromite scale (FeCr2O4), which can form as a “sub-scale” in Si or Cr containing steels. The diffusion coefficient of oxygen in the alloy, Do, and the oxygen concentration at the specimen surface, NO(s), which are constituents of the internal oxidation rate constant, (2DONO(s)/NB(O)n), were calculated for various oxidation conditions, and the rate equation for internal oxidation was derived. By comparing the calculated and measured values of (2DONO(s)/NB(O)n), we confirmed that the rate equation determined for internal oxidation was reasonable. The boundary condition between internal and external oxidation of Si or Cr containing steels (Fe-Si alloys or Fe-Cr alloys) at 850°C were also calculated by substituting the calculated values of DO and NO(s) into the rate equation.
Authors: Hai Yan Zhang, Xue Min Hu
Abstract: Preparing of cool wool from coarse wool fiber is a feasible and effective method. The preparation principle, process and properties of cool wool fiber was studied during chlorination treatment with sodium hypochlorite. The optimum chlorination treatment process was as follows: concentration of sodium hypochlorite at 4g/L, concentration of sulphuric acid at 20g/L, time 15min, temperature 20°C to 25°C, ratio of water and wool fiber was 50:1. Compared with original wool fiber,the surface of cool wool only retained scales roots and the cuticle becomes thinner. Handle, softness, whiteness, luster and the anti-shrinkage properties were improved, the breaking strength is decreased about 5% to 8%.
Authors: Hai Zhu Ma, Fang Huang, Shi Rong Liu, Bo Xu, Hua Long Liu
Abstract: The chemical composition, phase component and morphology characteristics of scale were researched by chemical analysis, XRD, SEM and TEM. The results show that the scale can be divided into iron minerals, silicon minerals, Ca-Ti-Mg minerals and aluminum hydroxide. Alumogoethite and micro-fine sodium-silicon slag fill in the gaps between the neat and bulky hematite crystals. Microgranular hydrated garnet and olivine fill in the gaps between the goethite crystals with a dense layered structure, accompanied by a small amount of galena and apatite precipitation particles. Perovskite and magnesium hydroxide have five periodic sedimentary cycles, forming an alternating sedimentary layer structure. Aluminum hydroxide forms thick scale and presents two kinds of typical structures, spherulitic and laminated. The research provides the theoretical basis for preventing and controlling scale in high-pressure digester group.
Authors: Hanna Smolenska
Abstract: The paper considers the sulphidation of the clad layers made of the cobalt base powder and prepared by the multi-overlapped tracks and sublayers fabricated using laser cladding process applied at 800°C under sulphur partial pressure ps2= 10e-8 atm and ps2= 10e-10 atm for 24 hours. The phase compositions of the scale were different. In both cases changes in the layer under the scale exhibited similar tendency – decomposition of the carbides from the interdendritic regions and severe internal corrosion along the dendrite boundaries.
Authors: Xiao Jun Zhao, Ming Ji, Xu Qun You, Chang Xiu Shi, Yin Sheng Xia, Hong Jian Zhu
Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to establish norm about the scale of self-concept on junior middle school students in the northwest China region by using the self-concept scale on junior middle school students in the northwest China region. The random samples of 1681 from Shannxi province, Gansu province, Ningxia autonomous region, Xinjiang autonomous region carried out the study. The results of the F test showed that there were significant differences in grade, gender, gender and grade interaction effect on most dimensions of self-concept. The study gave the norm of 10 factors about liberal arts self-concept, science self-concept, arts self-concept, family self-concept, friends self-concept, self-worth, mental and physical self-concept, appearance self-concept, conscience, honesty and second-order factors about academic self-concept, interpersonal self-concept, own self-concept, moral self-concept for the male and female students.
Authors: Xiao Mei Li
Abstract: In order to crystallize hardness features of common foods, the TA-XT2i texture analyzer and HDP/BS blade-type probes are applied to measure the hardness of 16 kinds of common foods. The samples are divided into groups according to proximity and deviation of the measured values, and consequently, the evaluators carry out sensory evaluation adopting sequential method and scale method in succession. After that, correlation analysis is been analyzed between measured values of the texture analyzer and scale values of sensory evaluation, correlation diagrams are drawn and regression equations are established to analyze. The results demonstrate that a close linear correlation exists between measured values and scale values. It is also concluded that reliability of scale values decreases with the growing quantity of tested samples, and it’s more difficult to scale when texture and property of the samples tend to have minor difference, therefore, scale values become less reliable.
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