Papers by Keyword: Scanning Capacitance Microscopy

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Authors: Patrick Fiorenza, Alessia Frazzetto, Lukas K. Swanson, Filippo Giannazzo, Fabrizio Roccaforte
Abstract: In this work the field effect mobility measured on lateral n-channel MOSFETs in 4H-SiC with Al implanted body was correlated with the interface trap density measured on MOS capacitors. The test devices were fabricated on samples subjected to different post implantation annealing conditions (i.e. with or without a protective carbon capping layer) and to an identical post-oxidation annealing in N2O. Despite the improved interfacial morphology, a reduction of the peak mobility (from 40 to 24 cm2V-1s-1) was observed using the carbon capping layer. An increase in the density of interface traps was consistently found. Nanoscale measurements of the active dopant concentration in the SiC channel region by cross-sectional scanning capacitance microscopy showed an higher compensation of p-type SiC for the sample processed without the capping layer, which indicates a more efficient incorporation of nitrogen at the SiO2/SiC interface.
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Authors: Vito Raineri, Lucia Calcagno, Filippo Giannazzo, D. Goghero, F. Musumeci, Fabrizio Roccaforte, Francesco La Via
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Authors: Ming Hung Weng, Fabrizio Roccaforte, Filippo Giannazzo, Salvatore di Franco, Corrado Bongiorno, Edoardo Zanetti, Alfonso Ruggiero, Mario Saggio, Vito Raineri
Abstract: This paper reports a detailed study of the electrical activation and the surface morphology of 4H-SiC implanted with different doping ions (P for n-type doping and Al for p-type doping) and annealed at high temperature (1650–1700 °C) under different surface conditions (with or without a graphite capping layer). The combined use of atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) allowed to clarify the crucial role played by the implant damage both in evolution of 4H-SiC surface roughness and in the electrical activation of dopants after annealing. The high density of broken bonds by the implant makes surface atoms highly mobile and a peculiar step bunching on the surface is formed during high temperature annealing. This roughness can be minimized by using a capping layer. Furthermore, residual lattice defects or precipitates were found in high dose implanted layers even after high temperature annealing. Those defects adversely affect the electrical activation, especially in the case of Al implantation. Finally, the electrical properties of Ni and Ti/Al alloy contacts on n-type and p-type implanted regions of 4H-SiC were studied. Ohmic behavior was observed for contacts on the P implanted area, whilst high resistivity was obtained in the Al implanted layer. Results showed a correlation of the electrical behavior of contacts with surface morphology, electrical activation and structural defects in ion-implanted, particularly, Al doped layer of 4H-SiC.
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Authors: Ming Hung Weng, Fabrizio Roccaforte, Filippo Giannazzo, Salvatore di Franco, Corrado Bongiorno, Mario Saggio, Vito Raineri
Abstract: This paper reports on the electrical activation and structural analysis of Al implanted 4H-SiC. The evolution of the implant damage during high temperature (1650 – 1700 °C) annealing results in the presence of extended defects and precipitates, whose density and depth distribution in the implanted sheet was accurately studied for two different ion fluences (1.31014 and 1.31015 cm-2) by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the profiles of electrically active Al were determined by scanning capacitance microscopy. Only a limited electrical activation (10%) was measured for both fluences in the samples annealed without a capping layer. The use of a graphite capping layer to protect the surface during annealing showed a beneficial effect, yielding both a reduced surface roughness and an increased electrical activation (20% for the highest fluence and 30% for the lowest one) with respect to samples annealed without the capping layer.
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Authors: Filippo Giannazzo, E. Bruno, S. Mirabella, G. Impellizzeri, E. Napolitani, Vito Raineri, F. Priolo, Daniel Alquier
Abstract: In this work, we investigate the effect of performing a high dose 20 keV He+ implant before the implantation of B at low energy (3 keV) in silicon and the subsequent thermal annealing at 800 °C. The implants were performed in laterally confined regions defined by opening windows in a SiO2 mask, in order to evidence the impact on a realistic configuration used in device fabrication. High resolution quantitative scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) combined with cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) allowed to clarify the role of the voids distribution produced during the thermal annealing on the diffusion and electrical activation of implanted B in Si. Particular evidence was given to the effect of the uniform nanovoids distribution, which forms in the region between the surface and the buried cavity layer.
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Authors: Filippo Giannazzo, Ferdinando Iucolano, Fabrizio Roccaforte, Lucia Romano, Maria Grazia Grimaldi, Vito Raineri
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Authors: Filippo Giannazzo, Martin Rambach, Dario Salinas, Fabrizio Roccaforte, Vito Raineri
Abstract: We studied the evolution of the electrical activation with annealing temperature and time in 4H-SiC implanted with Al ions at room temperature (RT). An accurate comparison between the electrical activation data obtained by FPP and SCM was carried out. The dependence of the electrically active profiles on annealing time was studied during isothermal (Tann=1600 °C) annealings for times ranging from 0 (spike anneal) to 30 min. By performing isochronal (t=30 min) processes at temperatures from 1550 to 1650 °C, the effect of the annealing temperature on the net doping concentration profiles was studied. Moreover, the activation energy (6.30.3 eV) associated to the process was extracted from the Arrhenius plot of the net active dose. Finally, the effect of the different thermal budgets on the roughening of the Al implanted 4H-SiC surface was also investigated in details by atomic force microscopy.
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Authors: Madhuparna Pal, Ming Liu, Chun Rui Ma, Chong Lin Chen, R. Guo, Amar Bhalla
Abstract: Ferroelectric-relaxor behavior on highly epitaxial Barium Zirconium Titanate (Ba (Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3) thin film was investigated using the Piezoresponse Force Microscopy specifically to investigate the onset of relaxor behavior. The surface roughness, microstructure and the grain size of the film were systematically studied. Ferroelectric switching at random localized points were observed at room temperature though it has been previously reported that the phase transition in BZT-20 occurs at 285K. Phase reversal with the reversal of the applied voltage was also seen. Scanning Capacitance Microscope has been employed to interrogate the localized change in the capacitance with change in voltage. The thin film sample showed the presence of ferroelectric nanoregions at room temperature unlike its bulk counterparts which is paraelectric at room temperature.
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Authors: Patrick Fiorenza, Salvatore di Franco, Filippo Giannazzo, Simone Rascunà, Mario Saggio, Fabrizio Roccaforte
Abstract: In this work, the combined effect of a shallow phosphorus (P) pre-implantation and of a nitridation annealing in N2O on the properties of the SiO2/4H-SiC interface has been investigated. The peak carrier concentration and depth extension of the electrically active dopants introduced by the nitridation and by the combination of P pre-implantation and nitridation were determined by high resolution scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). Macroscopic capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements on metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitors and nanoscale C-V analyses by SCM allowed to quantify the electrical effect of the donors introduced underneath the SiO2/4H-SiC interface. Phosphorous pre-implantation and subsequent high temperature electrical activation has been shown not only to produce an increased doping in the 4H-SiC surface region but also a better homogeneity of surface potential with respect to the use of N2O annealing only.
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