Papers by Keyword: Seawater

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Authors: Li Li Gao, Zheng Zhang, Wei Zhen Wang, Xiang Yu Hou, Jing Wang, Xiang Gao, Chong Chen, Zhen Dong Cui
Abstract: An environment-friendly pre-film for carbon steel was obtained by using seawater with cerium salt. The influencing factors of cerium salt pre-film were discussed through orthogonal experiments, and the optimum processing parameters were confirmed. Then morphology, composition, the forming process and corrosion resistance of the pre-film were investigated. Analysis by digital microscope showed that the cerium salt pre-film was a blue uniform coating. EDS images displayed that the pre-film consisted of Ce, O and Fe, the major component of the protective layer was a mixture of Ce oxide, Ce hydroxide and Fe hydroxide. The results of electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization and gravimetric measurements indicated that the cerium salt pre-film provided effective protection to the substrate of carbon steel.
Authors: Xiang Li, Stuart I. Bailey
Abstract: An electrochemical cell and environmental chamber were developed to study corrosion in a simulated splash zone. The designs of the dual chambers and the mounting of the three electrodes in the cell resulted in an excellent simulation of the major parameters and conditions in the marine splash zone. Excellent data acquisition and corrosion observations were possible, thereby, leading to a successful laboratory technique for research on corrosion in the marine splash zone. Electrochemical corrosion measurements correlated with the progression of changes during the wet – dry cycles, and the corrosion behavior was verified by microscopic observation.
Authors: Hui Yu, Xue Li Gao, Bao Wei Su, Cong Jie Gao
Abstract: Sea water desalination methods are widely used. Thermal process and membrane process are the commonly used methods .However, both thermal and membrane processes are faced scaling trend. In this study, a new approach for the management of sea water and capture of CO2, where ammoniated sea water is reacted with carbon dioxide, has been investigated. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time, and excess ammonia were assessed. The experimental results indicated that the optimum reaction temperature was about 20 °C and the optimum NH3H2O used amount was 4.8g/200ml. The results indicated that the new approach can reduce the sea water hardness and at the same time, contribute to reducing CO2 emissions.
Authors: Fa Ming He, Li Qiang Qiu, Feng Wei Yu
Abstract: Marine salvage is a key link to ensure the safety of maritime shipping. Hydraulic dilator is one of the emergency tools which are widely used in rescue. The traditional hydraulic dilators with mineral oil drive or electric dilators can hardly achieve satisfactory results in underwater salvage environment. A kind of underwater salvage dilator with seawater hydraulic drive is designed. Its main functions, structure and the calculation methods of main parameters are introduced.
Authors: Ruzinah Isha, Nurul Hariyah Abd Majid
Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is excellently used in various applications including wastewater treatment. It is known to have superb pigmentary properties, high adsorption in the ultraviolet (UV) region, and high stability. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of contact time of seawater desalination in the photocatalytic reaction. The hybrid TiO2 catalysts; a mixture of TiO2 and biomass ash, was synthesized via wet impregnation and calcined at 800 °C. The photocatalyst was then characterized by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Braunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The investigation was carried out in a photoreactor equipped with UV light operated for up to six hours with catalyst to seawater weight ratio of 1:400 and stirring speed of 600 rpm. The salt concentration, turbidity and pH of the water were determined prior and after the investigation. The result indicates that the salt concentration gradually decreased more than 25% as the contact time increased up to six hours. However, there is no significant change on pH value of the water. It can be concluded that the hybrid TiO2 is able to reduce the seawater salinity effectively.
Authors: Hu Yuan Sun, Li Juan Sun, Zeng Wen Liu, Su Lan Zhu
Abstract: A smart marine corrosion sensor, as a ship carried equipment, was developed by the authors to measure corrosion potential and corrosion current of materials in seawater. Measuring principle and characteristics of the corrosion sensor are described in the paper. This corrosion sensor, named FS-1, developed by the authors under the aid of 863 research project, had been used to investigate the seawater’s corrosivity in the autumn open cruise, which was performed by Science I Research Vessel in November 2009.
Authors: Xiao Long, Ke Cheng Liu, Li Jun Zhang, Xin Nie
Abstract: A power plant in Hebei province aimed to use sodium hypochlorite as fungicide for the circulating water in its seawater electrolysis system by recycling desalination brine. The feasibility of this process was intensively studied using water quality analysis, electrochemical corrosion tests, and dynamic simulation tests. The results showed that this process is more efficient than that using seawater and would not aggravate the corrosion problem that is present in the current system. Scale produced by the electrolysis can be completely removed by acid-washing.
Authors: Md. Shahinur Islam, Tausif Ali, Ahsan Uddin Ahmed, Syed Ashraful Karim, Hossain Mursalin
Abstract: World climate change challenges and the world’s consistent growing demand for energy during the past decade have brought the need to explore for more renewable energy resources. The continuation of exploring green energy sources results Osmotic Power- a new emission-free source of sustainable energy that can be used to generate electricity. Osmotic power plant is only feasible in places where rivers flow out to the ocean. The leading virtue of osmotic power is that it would be capable to produce a steady and reliable supply of renewable base load power as an alternative of other variable sources like solar or wind. There are some hurdles to generate osmotic power. Developing suitable membrane and initial construction cost are top on of them. Though Osmotic power is years from commercial feasibility but researchers think that it could provide thousands of terawatts of base load power per year around the globe. This paper presents an overview of osmotic power generation system with the analysis of potential benefits and limitations of it.
Authors: F. Mansfeld, L.T. Han, C.C. Lee, G. Zhang
Authors: Wu Man Zhang, Wei Sun, Jin Yang Jiang
Abstract: The coupling effect of flexural loading and environmental factors has great influence on the pore structures in hardened cement paste. In this paper, Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to analyze and observe the changes of pore structures in hardened cement paste subjected to flexural loading and wet-dry cycles in simulated seawater. The results show that the porosity greatly increases when the flexural loading level is raised from 0 f (the ultimate flexural loading capacity) to 0.8 f. Micro-cracks are observed and the connectivity, width and density of micro-cracks increase with the increment of flexural loading. The peaks position of pore size shifts toward greater micro-pores when the flexural loading was raised from 0 f to 0.8 f. The flexural loading and simulated seawater accelerate the degradation of pore structures.
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