Papers by Keyword: Short Crack

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Authors: Emilie Ferrié, Jean Yves Buffière, Wolfgang Ludwig
Abstract: In-situ fatigue tests monitored by Synchrotron Radiation X-ray microtomography were carried out in order to visualize the three dimensional (3D) shape and evolution of short cracks in the bulk of a cast Al alloy. After the in-situ fatigue test the sample has been infiltrated with liquid Gallium (Ga) in order to visualize the grain structure of the material. Irregularities of the crack advance along the crack front can clearly be correlated to the grain structure of the material.
Authors: Xue Ping Zhang, C.H. Wang, Jia Cai Li, Yiu Wing Mai, Lin Ye
Authors: Yong Xiang Zhao, Bing Yang, Wei Hua Zhang
Abstract: A series of uniaxial-compression tests were conducted on some representative brittle rock specimens, such as granite, marble and dolerite. A multi-channel, high-speed AE signal acquiring and analyzing system was employed to acquire and record the characteristics of AE events and demonstrate the temporal and spatial distribution of these events during the rupture-brewing process. The test result showed that in the primary stage, many low amplitude AE events were developed rapidly and distributed randomly throughout the entire specimens. In the second stage, the number of AE increased much slower than that in the first stage, while the amplitude of most AE events became greater. Contrarily to the primary stage, AE events clustered in the middle area of the specimen and distributed vertically conformed to the orientation of compression. The most distinct characteristic of this stage was a vacant gap formed approximately in the central part of the specimen. In the last stage, the number of AE events increased sharply and their magnitude increased accordingly. The final failure location coincidently inhabited the aforementioned gap. The main conclusion is that most macrocracks are developed from the surrounding microcracks existed earlier and their positions occupy the earlier formed gaps, and the AE activity usually becomes quite acute before the main rupture occurs.
Authors: Simon A. Barter, Madeleine Burchill, Michael Jones
Abstract: The corrections incorporated in fatigue crack growth prediction programs for crack closure are usually tested by their ability to predict retardation following an overload and for the accuracy of their prediction lives for long cracks greater than about 1mm. They should, however, be examined on their ability to predict the life of cracks that grow from small sizes, such as small inherent material discontinuities, to failure, which is more typical of service situations and the growth produced by small cycles as well as the larger cycles. To examine the extent of crack closure in aluminium alloy 7050-T7451 and the prediction of that growth, quantitative fractography measurements of short periods of fatigue crack growth produced with a specially engineered spectrum were conducted and are reported here. The spectrum contained bands of constant amplitude loads with diminishing mean stress designed to examine the extent of closure. The quantitative fractography results are compared to predictions by the common analytical programs FASTRAN and AFGROW and further with a basic effective stress intensity calculation method at a crack depth of about 1mm. The results showed that the analytical programs were able to predict the presence of closure; however, the extent of the closure was not accurately predicted.
Authors: Takahiro Shikama, Shinji Yoshihara, Yoshimasa Takahashi, Hiroshi Noguchi
Abstract: In general, aluminum alloy does not exhibit distinct fatigue limit (knee point) in the S-N diagram. The growth of a small fatigue crack of precipitation-hardened Al-Mg-Si system alloy (6061-T6) was investigated to clarify the mechanism of non-appearance of distinct fatigue limit (knee point) in the S-N diagram. The small crack was analysed in detail by replica method, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Electron Back Scatter Diffraction Patterns (EBSD). On the other hand, the existence of distinct fatigue limit (knee point) of new developed aluminum alloy by adding excess Mg to the 6061 alloy was found. In this study, the resistance of small crack growth of the developed alloy was compared with standard 6061 alloy. It was revealed that the resistance of crack growth of new developed alloy was higher than that of standard 6061 alloy in short crack region (l<1.0 mm).
Authors: Koshiro Mizobe, Masanobu Kubota, Yoshiyuki Kondo
Abstract: It has been recognized that the threshold stress intensity factor range Kth of a short crack is lower than that of a long crack. The short crack behavior in plain specimen has been studied by many researchers. However, the behavior of a short crack at the root of a long notch is not yet clear. The crack closure behavior is considered to be affected by the constraint at notch root and it is dependent on the length and the root radius of notch. In this study, fatigue tests on specimens with short pre-crack at long notch were done and the difference in crack closure behavior was studied. As a result, short crack effect appeared in any notch root radius. In a sharp notch, the crack opening point easily reached its stable condition after a small amount of crack extension. On the contrary in a dull notch, the opening point was lower than the stable condition and consequently short crack effect lasted in relatively wide range of crack extension. The small crack effect of notched specimen was discussed based on crack closure behavior.
Authors: Jaroslav Polák
Abstract: Recently the decisive role of plastic strain amplitude for the initiation and the growth rate of short cracks has been demonstrated. The plastic strain amplitude can be related to the rate of short crack growth and also to the fatigue life. Since the cyclic stress-strain response of a material determines the plastic strain amplitude it influences basically its fatigue life. The experiments in stress and plastic strain controlled loading and short crack growth are presented and used to demonstrate the importance of the cyclic plastic response for the evaluation of the fatigue life.
Authors: Keiko Shishime, Masanobu Kubota, Yoshiyuki Kondo
Abstract: Hydrogen is considered to be a possible energy source in the coming future. However, it has been recognized that hydrogen has a detrimental effect on the fatigue strength of metal. The fatigue crack growth characteristic is an important property for the integrity assessment of hydrogen utilization machine. In this report, the effect of hydrogen on the fatigue crack propagation characteristic was studied using low alloy steel, carbon steels and A286 alloy. Especially in this study, very short pre-cracked specimen as small as 0.03 mm deep was used and the near threshold fatigue crack behavior was studied. As a result, materials whose Vickers hardness was higher than 300 were found to be susceptible to absorbed hydrogen.
Authors: Xian Feng Ma, Hui Ji Shi
Abstract: The effect of recrystallization on the low cycle fatigue life of DZ4 directionally solidified superalloy was investigated for specimens with three different recrystallized layers, which were generated by shot peening (0.1MPa, 0.3MPa and 0.5MPa respectively) and a subsequent annealing heat treatment. The fatigue life showed a decrease for recrystallized specimens with shot-peening of 0.1 MPa and 0.3 MPa, and an unusual increase for that of 0.5MPa, in comparison with the original DZ4 specimen. In-situ SEM observations were performed on the short crack growth behaviors for both original and recrystallized specimens, which revealed the fracture mechanism and the interaction with microstructure. Quantitative analysis of fatigue crack growth rates rationalized the influence of recrystallization on the low-cycle fatigue life of DZ4.
Authors: Z. Szklarska-Smialowska
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