Papers by Keyword: Silk

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Authors: Wei Guo Chen, Zong Qian Wang, Zhi Hua Cui, Zhao Cheng Meng
Abstract: High wet fastness dyeing is always the hot issue of silk industry. The plenty of tyrosine residue in silk protein may contribute an opportunity to solve this problem. In this paper, in situ coloration of silk is described using coupling reaction between diazonium compounds, made from different arylamine derivatives, and tyrosine residues in the silk fibroin. The spectra of coloured silk and the washing and rubbing fastness were measured. The results suggest that the use of coupling reactions could be developed into a dyeing method for silk. The wet fastness properties of such coloration are good because the chromophores are incorporated into the protein chains.
Authors: Wei Zhang, Jian Xin He, Yan Wang
Abstract: Differences in secondary structure among Bombyx mori (B. mori) silk and two wild silks of Antheraea yamamai (A. yamamai) and Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) were investigated by CP/MAS 13C NMR Spectroscopy. The β-sheet structure was primary in three silk, and B. mori silk had the highest β-sheet structure. Although amino acid compositions are very similar for two wild silk, their secondary structures had significant difference. A. yamamai silk contained more α-helix structure, whereas more β-turn and random coil structures formed in A. pernyi silk. B. mori silk was mainly composed of anti-parallel β-sheet structure, however, the parallel β-sheet structure was advantage in the two wild silks, and A. yamamai silk contained more anti-parallel β-sheet conformation than A. pernyi silk.
Authors: Yu Jun Wang, Kazumi Sanai, Masao Nakagaki
Abstract: Aquatic Larvae of Stenopsychid caddisfly (Stenopsychie marmorata) survive by attaching its catching nets at the bottom of the rocks in the flowing water. It was hypothesized that S. marmorata larva connects small pebbles by producing both silk-like protein and strong adhesive protein simultaneously. A 98 kDa protein(Smap-98k)was identified as an adhesive component by constructing a silk gland –specific cDNA library of S. marmorata. The cDNA sequence of Smap-98k was 2,679 bp long and encoding a 893 amino acids–long open reading frame (ORF) in which the first 19 residues are predict to be the signal peptide. The alignment of the Cys residues indicated the primary structure of this protein to consist of 15 degenerated repeats, each about 50 residues long and contains 6 conserved Cys residues. The Smap-98k was characterized by an abundance of Cys residues and charged amino acids with epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) structure. The most common amino acid of this protein was Cys (11.98%), with Pro (9.91%) and Glu (9.26%) following order of magnitude. Cys was assumed to play a role in maintaining the topology of charged amino acids on the molecular surface by intramolecular disulphide-bond formation. The gene was expressed specially in the silk gland similarity to the major silk proteins such like heavy fibroin (H-fibroin) and Light fibroin (L-fibroin) of S. marmorata larvae. The sequence of the protein showed certain homology to the silk-185 kDa of Chironomus pallidivittatus (Midge) which also spin silk underwater. The characterizations of abundance of Cys residues and charged amino acids also shared by Megabalanus rosa cement protein (Mrcp-20k ) and Mytilus galloprovincialis foot protein 2 (Mgfp 2) which both were produced in the marine environment. Although the similarity among Smap-98k, Mrcp-20k and Mgfp 2 sequences were very low, the functional relationship in underwater adhesion of these proteins should be noted.
Authors: Xue Qin Wang, Zi Min Jin
Abstract: A thrust of the study is to compare different design principles for advanced creation of full-fashioned weaving. According to the present integrated design mode, three technical elements of weaving design have been identified in the course of creation, i.e. mixed yarns, integrated structures, and integrated patterns. The design process is the key to successful integrated design, including allocation of materials of warp and weft, different interlacing locations that suitable for clothing structures, and the method of patterning in the current CAD digital processing. The entire design mode is different from the previous laminar woven textile designs. Experiments have shown that, with the shapeable materials, the fine silk yarns are perfect to weave and mould the three dimensional dress for women. Besides, rich and novel textures can be embellished inherently on the surfaces of the full-fashion woven clothing. The expanded creative dimensions of woven textiles contributed an added value to silk products produced by current machines. Meanwhile the new features of Seamless Woven Fashion (SWF) further widened the creative scope of fashion design. The study has contributed to the future research and development of advanced woven textiles as the end products.
Authors: Ying Cai, Hua Yun Ge, Jin Qiang Liu
Abstract: During the transmission of ultrasound, its great directionality, ubiquitous penetration and the ability to strengthen the diffusion, exchange and transfer of matter can help the treating fluid reach the crossing points of silk fabric. And the function of ultrasonic wave can make use of acoustic cavitation effect to produce impact on sericin layer at the crossing point, thus promoting the fragmentation and separation of sericin, improving the removal efficiency of sericin at crossing points and achieving uniform silk fiber degumming. The function of ultrasonic wave can cut down the time of process and avoid the damage of fibroin through controlling the temperature and dose of chemical agent.
Authors: Cheng Chen, Ling Zhong, Feng Xiu Zhang, Guang Xian Zhang
Abstract: OHDAB (Octyl Hexyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bromide) is an efficient accelerant for reactive dyes on dyeing silk. The accelerating mechanism of OHDAB was studied in this paper. The results showed that OHDAB could make dye molecules assembled and the particle size of dye aggregate increased with the increase of OHDAB concentration. OHDAB could neutralize the negative charge of silk; even the zeta potential of silk could become positive with the increase of OHDAB concentration.
Authors: Ling Zhong, Gang Xian Zhang, Feng Xiu Zhang, Xu Ting Xue
Abstract: The dyeing accelerating effect of octyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (OTAB) on dyeing silk with reactive red dye B-3BF, reactive yellow dye B-4RFN and reactive dark blue dye B-2GLN was studied in this paper. The dye-uptake rates increased with increasing concentration of OTAB, and the highest dye-uptake rates of three reactive dyes were 91~98%. The adsorption kinetics of dyeing process at different temperatures was also investigated by using pseudo first- and second-order kinetic models. The results showed that adsorption rates increased with increasing temperature. The adsorption kinetics of three reactive dyes on silk with OTAB as accelerant was found to follow the pseudo second-order sorption kinetics equation. The activation energy of reactive red dye B-3BF, reactive yellow dye B-4RFN and reactive dark blue dye B-2GLN dyeing on silk with OTAB as accelerant were found to be 26.91, 17.31, 6.99 kJ/mol, respectively.
Authors: Cheng Chen, Guang Xian Zhang, Feng Xiu Zhang, Hui Zheng
Abstract: With octyl butyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (OBDAB) as accelerant, adsorption kinetics of dyeing silk with three reactive dyes was studied in this paper. As concentration of OBDAB increased, the dye-uptake rate increased. The highest dye-uptake rates of three reactive dyes could reach to 89.40%~98.98% and the concentration of OBDAB was only 6-8g/L. This showed OBDAB was an effective accelerant. Pseudo first- and second-order kinetic models were used to analyze the adsorption kinetic data. The experimental data were found to follow the second-order kinetic model. Meanwhile, the initial dye adsorption rates of reactive red dye B-3BF, reactive yellow dye B-4RFN and reactive orange dye B-2RLN increased as temperature increased, and the activation energy of them were found respectively to be 28.42,13.14,32.90 kJ/mol.The positive values of and obtained indicated that reactive dyes adsorption with OBDAB as accelerant was an endothermic process. The conclusion showed OBDAB was a potential accelerant.
Authors: Jun Zhang, Jing Chun Lv, Ren Cheng Tang
Abstract: The photoyellowing and poor UV-protection ability of silk, wool and nylon fabric can be improved through the anti-UV finishing with UV-absorbers. This study is concerned with the adsorption properties of a water-soluble benzotriazole UV-absorber on silk, wool and nylon. It was found that the adsorption kinetics of the UV absorber on the three fibers followed the pseudo second-order kinetic model and the rate constant indicated a faster adsorption rate for UV absorber on silk than those for wool and nylon. The activation energies for the adsorption process on silk, wool and nylon were found to be 49.74, 63.92 and 78.21 kJ/mol, respectively. The adsorption of the UV-absorber on silk and wool had the characteristics of low affinity constant and high saturation value whereas that on nylon showed a small saturation value with a remarkably high affinity constant. The electrostatic interactions between the positively charged amino groups in fibers and the anionic sulfonate groups in UV absorber have an important role in the adsorption of UV absorber.
Authors: Kai Qiang Liu, Hui Tang, Yan Nian Rui, Guo Qiang Chen
Abstract: As a new textile material, silk/PLA mixture combines the outstanding characteristics of silk and PLA fibers, but this mixture is subjected to some problems owing to the poor alkali resistance of PLA fiber during the pretreatment and reactive dyeing processes. In the present work, the alkali resistance of silk/PLA mixture was tested with three alkalis, namely sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate. It was found that silk component was less influenced by sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate, whereas PLA component was more or less influenced by three alkalis. Silk/PLA mixture showed low weight loss after sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate treatment, but had very high weight loss after sodium hydroxide treatment. 10 g/L sodium carbonate and 3 g/L sodium hydroxide resulted in the obvious changes in the morphological structure of PLA. After the alkaline treatment, the IR spectra of PLA treated with 3 g/L alkali displayed great variations, and the intensity of the peak at 3429.3 cm-1 increased with the strength of alkalis, showing that the partially hydrolysis of PLA occurred.
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