Papers by Keyword: Spallation

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Authors: Yun Chuan Yang, Xu Wang
Abstract: Based on the 3D plane impact and 2D MCA numerical simulation, the 3D ANSYS/LS-DYNA software is applied to conduct numerical simulations on two kinds of impact breaking process of a glass ball, during which spallation phenomenon occur. The Von Misses stress of each node changes with the time as the result of the stress waves spreading, reflecting and overlapping within the material. The stereograms and profiles from the simulation results reveal that the stress of each node changes with the time. By comparing the simulation results of plane impact and 2D point impact, differences and similarities between these processes are illustrated in this paper, which reflects the complexity of mechanics in the processes.
Authors: Aurélie Vande Put, Djar Oquab, Daniel Monceau
Abstract: During service, TBC can suffer degradation by CMAS, FOD, erosion or spallation. Whereas the first three are due to foreign particles, the last one is related to thermal cycling. When subjected to high temperature exposures followed by rapid coolings under oxidizing conditions, a TBC system undergoes morphological changes and stress development. This will initiate cracks which propagate and finally lead to failure by spallation. Consequently, the aim of the present study is to understand better the mechanisms responsible for such spallation events. Two kinds of TBC systems with different bond coatings (NiCoCrAlYTa or Pt-modified nickel aluminide bond coatings) are thermally cycled. Subsequently, SEM investigations on TBC systems after spallation concentrate on failure path, defect, morphological and microstructural changes to propose way for improving TBC system lifetime.
Authors: A. Tony Fry, Jim P. Banks, John Nunn, Louise.J. Brown
Abstract: Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) have been developed for advanced gas turbine engine components to improve the engine efficiency and reliability. The integrity and reliability of these coatings is of paramount importance. Accurate prediction of service lifetimes for these components relies upon many factors, and is not straightforward as knowledge of the service conditions and accurate input data for modelling are required. The main cause of failure of coatings is through debonding which develops as a consequence of thermally induced strains between the metallic bondcoat and the alumina TGO layers due to the differences in the thermal expansion coefficients of the individual layers. Thermal transients due to the power cycles of turbines will then cause these fractures to grow between the TGO and the bondcoat. When these fractures reach a critical size they can grow rapidly and cause the TBC to spall off. Thermal cycling of TBCs is used therefore to evaluate and rank TBC performance. Within the laboratory this is often conducted under isothermal conditions. Whilst this test method has performed adequately in the past it does not fully simulate service conditions. Work has been underway therefore to develop a more complex test method, which better simulates the service conditions experienced by the TBC. The approach here employs a gas torch to heat the operating face of the TBC whilst cooling the rear of the substrate with compressed air, thereby imparting a heat flux on the specimen. The specimen is then cycled by removing the gas torch and cooling with compressed air on the front and rear faces. Tests have been conducted on a TBC system consisting of an IN738 substrate with a CN334 bondcoat and EBPVD TBC. Thermal cycling tests have been performed under both isothermal and heat flux conditions. During the course of the tests the samples were examined non-destructively using a thermal camera to identify early indications of spallation. This paper reports on the performance of the flame rig equipment and the results from the exposures on the TBC system.
Authors: Stephen Osgerby, Hugh E. Evans, Stuart R.J. Saunders
Authors: James L. Smialek
Authors: O.A. Adesanya, K. Bouhanek, F.Howard Stott, Peter Skeldon, D.G. Lees, G.C. Wood
Authors: George T. Gray III, Veronica Livescu, Ellen K. Cerreta
Abstract: Orientation-imaging microscopy offers unique capabilities to quantify the defects and damage evolution occurring in metals following dynamic and shock loading. Examples of the quantification of the types of deformation twins activated, volume fraction of twinning, and damage evolution as a function of shock loading in Ta are presented. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) examination of the damage evolution in sweeping-detonation-wave shock loading to study spallation in Cu is also presented.
Authors: Yannick Le Maoult, Didier Adé, Bernard Pieraggi
Authors: Noraziana Parimin, Z. Zulnuraini, S.A. Che Sakdun
Abstract: This research investigates the effect of heat treatment on the isothermal oxidation behaviour of Fe-33Ni-19Cr alloy. The samples were undergone heat treatment at three different temperatures namely, 1000oC, 1100oC and 1200oC for 120 minutes of soaking time followed by water quench to differ the grain size of alloy. The heat-treated sample was ground by using SiC paper atP600 finished. The samples were weighed using analytical balance and the surface area was measured before oxidation test. The heat-treated Fe-33Ni-19Cr alloys were isothermally oxidized at 850oC for 150 hours. The characterization on oxidized samples were carried out using scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The result shows that, the average grain size increases as the heat treatment temperature increased. Fine grain size develops higher grain boundary area which acts as an ion diffusion path across the metal-gas interface during oxide formation. HT1000 sample with fine grain structure shows minimum weight gain and low oxidation rate compared to HT1100 and HT1200 samples. Uniform oxide layerformed on surface of the fine grain size sample. Whereas spallation of oxide scales was identified on the coarse grain size sample. Phase analysis shows that the oxidized sample formed several oxide phase.
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