Papers by Keyword: Spatial Distribution

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Authors: Zsuzsanna Sükösd, Kristofer Hannesson, Gui Lin Wu, Dorte Juul Jensen
Abstract: The distribution of nucleation sites in 90% cold rolled aluminium (AA1050) annealed for 1h at 280°C has been determined by serial sectioning the sample and characterizing each section using the electron back scattering pattern (EBSP) method in the SEM. In total 1844 nuclei are identified. It was found that the nuclei are not randomly distributed but clustered preferentially along TD-RD planes in the sample. The results are presented and implications of clustered nucleation on recrystallization kinetics are discussed.
Authors: Nan Lin, Yu Jie Feng, Shun Ze Wu
Abstract: Based on environmental statistics data from 2000 to 2010, characteristics and spatial distribution of the abrupt environmental pollution accidents were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and GIS methods. The results showed a decline in the frequency of accidents from 2000 to 2010. Abrupt environmental pollution accidents occurrence frequency in 2010 is only equivalent to 17.42% in 2000. More than 80% of the accidents occurred in the water and air pollution. Environmental pollution and destruction accidents centralized in western and middle parts of China, mainly in Hunan, Sichuan, and Guangxi. The most frequent types of accident were safety misadventure (27), followed by illegal sewage (22), layout problem (11), traffic accident (10), natural disaster (7), long term accumulation (5), and mismanage (3).Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning the need to improve the level of environmental risk prevention and control in the environmental pollution in China.
Authors: Xing Ming Zheng, Kai Zhao, Ling Jia Gu
Abstract: This paper mainly analyzes the spatial distribution of electrical conduction (EC) in the five study areas using the measured data by EM38. The analysis on electrical conduction spatial variation is conducive to correctly understand the electrical conduction measurement results in saline-alkali soil. Based on the analysis of sampled electrical conduction data, the following conclusions are obtained. First, the spatial variation of electrical conduction is related to its mean. From a macro point of view, the greater the mean of electrical conduction is, the stronger spatial heterogeneity will be. This relationship may not be met when two study areas have the similar mean of electrical conduction. Second, the spatial autocorrelation length of electrical conduction distribution is the description of the spatial correlation relation changes with distance, while the sill of electrical conduction indicates the amplitude of electrical conduction spatial variation. Finally, the discrete Fourier transform results show that electrical conduction has different spatial period in the five study areas.
Authors: Yin Zhi He, Zhi Gang Yang, Yi Gang Wang
Abstract: Based on the analysis of automobile aerodynamic noise generation mechanisms and the components of interior wind noise, the spectra characteristics and spatial distribution rule of sound level of interior wind noise were investigated at first, then the frequency characteristics and noise level under different wind speeds, different yaw angles in SAWTC full-scale aeroacoustic wind tunnel were studied. The results show that: the interior noise level was nearly symmetric on vehicle left and right side, noise level of outboard ear was normally higher than that of inboard ear. The frequency characteristics under different wind speeds were almost the same, the linear OASPL of interior noise increased at about 4.4th power and A-weighted OASPL at about 5.5th power of wind speed. In addition, the acoustic power increased as yaw angle rose up, and noise level by leeward side was normally higher than that by windward under the same yaw angle.
Authors: Wen Wen Qiao, Shuo Ben Bi, Qi Fu Wang, Jing Tao Liang
Abstract: Zhengzhou-Luoyang area is one of the cradles of ancient Chinese civilization and contains more than 1000 settlements of the Neolithic Age. To study the spatial distribution of the Neolithic settlements in the region, this paper applied the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to investigate the relationship between site locations and environmental variables. The results of GIS analysis show that the settlement distribution of each culture period has a clustered pattern and obvious spatial features. Most of the settlements tend to be located in flat areas with low elevation and close to rivers and arable soils. Based on the environment variables, a Neolithic settlement site predictive model was generated to predict the archaeological probability of any given area in Zhengzhou-Luoyang area. The predictive model and distribution characteristics obtained here can help better understand the Neolithic man-land relationship and provide guidance for future field archaeology.
Authors: Huai Fei Shen
Abstract: The paper discusses the spatial distribution of the road traffic noise using the monitoring data of the road traffic noise in Xuchang city. The spatial distribution of the road traffic noise in urban district of Xuchang city has notable characteristic. The results indicate that the current situation of traffic noise pollution is a severe threat for people's life in Xuchang city. And the traffic noise in business district is higher than the value of residential district and industrial district. The traffic noise in Weidu district is higher than the value in other district.
Authors: Jian Ping Zhang, Yong Kun He
Abstract: Taking the day numbers of daily average temperature ≥30°C and the day numbers of daily maximum temperature ≥35°C as the index of high temperature disaster, the occurrence regularity of high temperature disaster for June to September was analyzed from 1961 to 2010 in Chongqing. The results showed that there was a large inter-decadal variation in occurrence of high temperature disaster. The most severe year of high temperature disaster was the year of 2006, while the year of 1987 is the lightest one. The general trend was that it was the lowest one in the 1980s and gradually increased in the 1990s, and reached the highest value in the 2000s. The spatial distribution of the day numbers of daily average temperature ≥30°C was the same as that of the day numbers of daily maximum temperature ≥35°C. The highest values were distributed at the areas of Kaixian, Yunyang, Wushan in the Northeast part and Fengdu, Fuling in the middle part and Banan,Shapingba,Beibei in urban district and Qijiang in the southwest part. The lowest values were distributed at the areas of Xiushan,Youyang,Qianjiang in the southeast part and Chengkou,Fengjie in the northeast part and Dazu,Rongchang in the west part.
Authors: Xue Ru Zhang, Dong Jie Guan, Feng Yun Mou, Kun Dong
Abstract: Abstract. Solar radiation is the most important energy source in the Earth. And its spatial distribution has critical effects on the life and environmental process on the Earth. The characteristics of spatial distribution of total solar radiation in the complicated topography in the mountain area of east Tibetan Plateau was simulated in the present study. The three kinds of radiation, i.e. direct solar radiation, diffusive solar radiation and total solar radiation were calculated based on the existing astronomical parameters and experiential formula. The calculation of topographical shading was modified by using the 30m-resolution DEM data. The results revealed in general that the total solar radiation tended to decrease northwest-southeastwardly. At regional scale, the latitudinal zonality of the spatial distribution of annual total solar radiation differed insignificantly. Local topography affected profoundly the spatial distribution of annual total solar radiation. The annual total solar radiation in complicated topography was relatively less, whereas there was significant inner difference.
Authors: Jing Xie, Hong Guang Cheng, Xue Lian Liu, Lin Wang
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate lead (Pb) level and spatial distribution pattern in the household dust around a smelter in Yunnan. The Pb content in the dust ranges from 191~13371mg/kg, with significant differences among the investigated villages, and 89.33% of the samples exceed the secondary limit of Chinese Soil Environmental Quality Standard for Pb. Spatial analysis shows that the pollution center was close to CH-co, and the radial distribution pattern is consistent with the predominant wind derection. The investigation proved that, lead emitted from the smelting process via atomospheric deposit is the main source of the Pb in the indoor dust, which may cause a potential adverse effect on people in the studying district.
Authors: Xiao Bing Liu, Xuan Song, Jie Chen, Peng Fei Liu
Abstract: Taking the representative alluvial plain of the Yellow River-Fengqiu county as example, difference of available K (AK), total (TK) and total (TP) between topsoil and subsoil and corresponding factors was studied. The result shows that average content of AK in topsoil is lower than it in subsoil, spatial variation of AK in topsoil is similar with it in subsoil. TK in topsoil shows more randomness than in subsoil. TP in topsoil has a stronger spatial correlation than in subsoil. The spatial distribution of TK and TP are quite consistent with landform in topsoil and subsoil, but AK does not have this trend. The difference of TK between two layers is related with surface deposit and irrigation condition. AK is mainly affected by surface deposit and farming intensity such as fertilization. The difference of TP is unrelated with elevation, the distance to the Yellow River, roads and water channel and residential areas.
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