Papers by Keyword: Strain Path

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Authors: Lionel Leotoing, Dominique Guines, Shun Ying Zhang, Eric Ragneau
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Authors: M. Lopez-Pedrosa, Bradley P. Wynne, Mark W. Rainforth
Abstract: The effects of strain path reversal on the microstructure in AA5052 have been studied using high resolution EBSD. Deformation was carried out using two equal steps of forward/forward (F/F) or forward/reverse (F/R) torsion at a temperature of 300°C and strain rate of 1s-1 to a total strain of 0.5. In both cases the deformation microstructure in the majority of grains analysed consisted of microband arrays clustering at specific angles to the macroscopic deformation axes. For the F/F condition microbands clustered around -20° and +45° to the maximum principle stress direction, whilst for the F/R condition significantly more spread in microband angle was observed. This suggests that the microbands formed in the forward deformation have or are dissolving and any new microbands formed are related to the deformation conditions of the final strain path. This leads to the conclusion that instantaneous deformation mode determines the orientation of new microbands formed whilst a non-linear strain path history influences the range of misorientation angle in the material through the dissociation of previously formed microbands and the formation of new microbands at the new straining condition, leading to a lower level of misorientation angle. Analysis of material subjected to static annealing at 400°C for 1 hour appears to correspond with these observations as the F/F material was completely recrystallised with a fine grain structure whilst the F/R material had no major signs of recrystallisation.
223
Authors: M. Lopez-Pedrosa, Bradley P. Wynne, Mark W. Rainforth, P. Cizek
Abstract: The effects of strain path reversal on the macroscopic orientation of microbands in AA5052 have been studied using high resolution electron backscatter diffraction. Deformation was carried using two equal steps of forward/forward or forward/reverse torsion at a temperature of 300°C and strain rate of 1s-1 to a total equivalent tensile strain of 0.5. In both cases microbands were found in the majority of grains examined with many having more than one set. The microbands appear to cluster at specific angles to the macroscopic deformation. For the forward/forward condition microbands clustered around -20° and +45° to the maximum principle stress direction and at ± 30-35° to the principal strain direction. For the forward/reverse condition significantly more spread in microband angle was observed though peaks were visible at ±35° with respect to principal stress direction and at -40° and +30° with respect to the principal strain direction of the reverse torsion. This suggests the microbands formed in the forward deformation have or are dissolving and any new microbands formed are related to the deformation conditions of the final strain path.
877
Authors: Bradley P. Wynne, O. Hernandez-Silva, M. Lopez-Pedrosa, Mark W. Rainforth
Abstract: The effects of strain path reversal, using forward and reverse torsion, on the microstructure evolution in the aluminium alloy AA5052 have been studied using high resolution electron backscatter diffraction. Deformation was carried using two equal steps of forward/forward or forward/reverse torsion at a temperature of 300°C and strain rate of 1s-1 to a total equivalent tensile strain of 0.5. Sections of the as-deformed gauge lengths of both test specimens were then annealed at 400°C for 1 hour in a salt bath in order to investigate their subsequent recrystallisation response. In both strain path histories the deformation substructure in the grains analysed consisted of microband arrays within an equiaxed dislocation cell structure. The material subjected to forward/forward deformation did, however, have a slightly greater number of low angle boundaries, i.e. boundaries < 15° misorientation, whilst the forward/reverse material had some grains containing little evidence of substructure. On annealing both materials had significantly reduced levels of low angle boundaries but only the forward/forward material had an increased number of high angle boundaries and a reduced grain size, indicating recrystallisation had only occurred in this material. This would suggest that the deformation microstructure within the forward/forward condition was sufficient to initiate and maintain recrystallisation whilst the microstructure produced by the forward/reverse test contained insufficient nuclei or internal energy to produce a recrystallised material within 1 hour. Further work is now required at different annealing times in order to determine if the major effect of strain path is on retarding nucleation, growth or both.
407
Authors: Chetan P. Nikhare
Abstract: Lightweight design for vehicle industry is not anymore an optional condition but a mandatory need to reduce the fuel consumption and adhere to environmental regulations. To achieve this goal many single parts have been removed and complex design have been implied. This includes implementation of tailored-welded blanks and multi-layer materials. Due to the increase use of dissimilar materials in a component it is also called as hybrid components. It was observed that due to use of hybrid component the part weight decrease and thus increase fuel efficiency. To continue this aspect, in this bilayer tube flaring is investigated. The metal tubular material from inside and polymer from outside is considered for flaring. The flaring behavior of the tube is analyzed and compared with the single metal layer. The strength difference and effect of that on the formability is discussed and resulted. It was observed that due to contact of lower strength material from outside the formability of the metal tube increased and failure is delayed.
92
Authors: Nataliya A. Sakharova, José Valdemar Fernandes
Abstract: The microstructure evolution of copper multicrystalline sheets, undergoing plastic deformation in the sequences of strain paths rolling – tension and tension – rolling, was studied in the present work. For both sequences, two different types of change of strain path were studied: the tensile and rolling directions were parallel and normal to each other. Samples submitted to these four complex strain paths were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM observations have shown the typical dislocations microstructures for the prestrain paths in tension and rolling. The dislocation microstructures observed during the second path were analysed and discussed as a function of the sequence and of the type of strain path change (parallel and normal sequential paths). Special microbands features were observed during the second path, for both sequences, rolling – tension and tension – rolling. The appearance of such microstructural features is discussed in terms of the sequence and type of strain path change and it is linked with the slip activity during the second deformation mode.
589
Authors: Tetsuo Sakai, Kohki Mori, Hiroshi Utsunomiya
Abstract: It is believed that the shear deformation superimposed on rolling deformation accelerates grain refinement. However, it has not yet been completely understood whether the grain refinement is due to the increase in amount of equivalent strain, or the change in strain path. In the present study, three different strain paths in plane strain - (1) simple shear, (2) compression and (3) the combination of simple shear and compression - are introduced into 1100 aluminum sheet. The recrystallization behaviours are compared. Plane-strain compression was achieved by a normal rolling, while the simple shear was achieved by a continuous ECAE (conshearing). The combined strain path was achieved by the conshearing subsequently followed by the rolling. The same amount of the equivalent strain of 1.28 was accumulated in the three paths. The ratio of shear strain to compressive strain was varied by three levels in the combined strain process. After heat treatment, the material processed by the combined strain path gave a finer recrystallized grain size than both of the monotonic strain paths at either annealing temperature. The finest recrystallized grain size was obtained at the shear strain ratio of 0.6 to the total equivalent strain. It was found that the change in strain path was effective for introducing more new high-angle grain boundaries.
315
Authors: Huan Ping Yang, Yao Mian Wang
Abstract: The cold rolling texture evolution as a function of strain path in pure titanium with initial typical recrystallized texture has been studied using viscoplastic self-consistent simulations. Three different strain paths, namely unidirectional rolling, two-step cross rolling and multi-step cross rolling have been employed to investigate the effect of strain path change on the evolution of deformation texture. The simulation results indicate that the activation of predominant prismatic slip in unidirectional rolling sample results in the formation of commonly cold rolling fiber texture RD//<10-10> in pure titanium, whereas the increased activity of basal slip over that of prismatic slip is responsible for the strong ND//<hkil> fiber texture in the two cross rolled samples.
189
Authors: David Gutiérrez, A. Lara, Daniel Casellas, Jose Manuel Prado
Abstract: The Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) are widely used in the formability analysis of sheet metal to determine the maximum strain, which gives the Forming Limit Curve (FLC). It is well known that these curves depend on the strain path during forming and hence on the test method used to calculate them. In this paper, different stretching tests such as the Nakajima and the Marciniak tests were performed, with different sample geometries to obtain points in different areas of the FLD. An optical analysis system was used, which allows following the strain path during the test. The increasing use of advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) has created an interest in determining the mechanical properties of these materials. In this work, FLCs for a TRIP steel were determined using Nakajima and Marciniak tests, which revealed different strain paths depending on the type of test. Determination of the FLCs was carried out following the mathematical calculations indicated in the ISO 12004 standard and was also compared with an alternative mathematical method, which showed different FLCs. Finally, the tests were verified by comparing the strain paths of the Nakajima and Marciniak tests with a well-known mild steel.
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