Papers by Keyword: Surface Reactions

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Authors: T. Hösel, Claas Müller, Holger Reinecke
Abstract: Electrically insulating high performance ceramics like zirconia are increasingly used for high technological applications due to their extraordinary properties. Meanwhile even the spark erosion process can be used to structure non-conductive ceramics by using an assisting electrode (AE). This conductive AE is placed on top of the work piece to enable the process. The electrical contact is sustained during the process by carbonic residua of cracked oil used as a dielectric. For an enhanced understanding of the removal mechanisms during the spark erosion process of such non-conductive ceramics, we analysed the surface of ceramic samples during the entire spark erosion process chain. In our investigation a zirconium oxide with yttrium oxide stabilisation was chosen. For this purpose X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed. The XRD results showed that the zirconium oxide reacts under the presence of carbonic residua during processing into zirconium carbide. This material supports sustaining the conductivity additionally, as it is conductive itself. In a subsequent thermal cleaning step with oxide atmosphere (T = 750°C), remaining carbonic residua are oxidised and thus removed. The XRD measurements after cleaning showed that the zirconium carbide was no longer detectable. Instead a monoclinic zirconium phase was found. This shows that a reverse reaction of zirconium carbide into zirconium oxide took place. To prevent the formation of a non-stabilised monoclinic phase, the oven process was adapted to higher temperatures of 900°C with higher heating and active cooling rates of up to 10 K/s. This adjustment shows that the monoclinic phase can be supressed and the reverse reaction leads to a tetragonal zirconium oxide like the bulk material.
Authors: J.S. Gold, J.S. Lannon, Jr., V.L. Tolani, K.S. Ziemer, C.D. Stinespring
Authors: V.D. Heydemann, Gregory S. Rohrer, Edward M. Sanchez, Marek Skowronski
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