Papers by Keyword: Thermal Spray

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Authors: Stefan Lucian Toma, Constantin Baciu, Costică Bejinariu, Diana Antonia Gheorghiu, Corneliu Munteanu, Nicanor Cimpoeşu
Abstract: This paper presents a comparative study on the corrosion behaviour of the Al depositions, obtained by thermal spraying in electric arc - the classic method (ASP) and the Al deposits behaviour, carried out with a thermal spray combined device (CTSD). The use of CTSD allows the thermal field modification of the spraying jet and implicitly the modifying the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the deposits of aluminium. Evaluation of the corrosion behaviour of the aluminium deposits was achieved by exposure to salt water - sea water (3.5NaCl). The corrosion products, formed on the surface of the coatings, were investigated based on the photographic records, electronic microscopy – SEM and X-ray diffraction. The aluminium oxide, obtained on the depositions, carried out by using CTSD - exposed in saline environment is more adherent then the oxide obtained on the deposits, carried out through ASP - which leads to a loss in thickness.
Authors: Alejandra Ferrer, Irene García, Javier Fernández, J.M. Guilemany
Abstract: Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are widely used to improve the biocompatibility of titanium substrates. The main problem concerning these coatings is related with the bad adhesion characteristic of the ceramic/metal interface. A TiO2 interlayer can be used to improve the adhesion of the coating; however the TiO2 is a bioinert material. Then, a solution can be the use of a mixture of HA-TiO2 (60% wt HA- 40% wt TiO2) powder has been sprayed by using High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (DJH-2700) for different spraying distances. The adhesion of the coatings has been mechanically tested and the values have been compared with the values obtained for coatings that have been immersed in simulated body fluid solution (SBF) after 24 and 120 hours. The crystallinity degree of the HA plays an important role on it for the dissolution affecting the behaviour of the interface at the same time it is also important osteoclastic resorption and carbonate apatite precipitation.
Authors: A.B.C. Arnt, Marcos Marques da Silva Paula, Márcio Roberto da Rocha, Elidio Angioletto, L.C. Zanini, R. Miranda, C.C. Zanelatto, L. Felippe
Abstract: The machinery used in coal thermoelectrical plants usually is submitted to erosive wear. The erosive wear occurs mainly in the metallic pipe set of heat exchangers due the flow of hot gases carrying erosive particles. Jorge Lacerda’s thermoelectrical complex at Capivari de Baixo city holds seven power units, where two units use approximately 20 000 ASTM A178 heat pipes. The set is submitted to a semester maintenance schedule (preventive and corrective) where the damaged pipes are changed. So, in this work a set of erosive wear accelerated tests according ASTM G76 were performed in order to develop and specify materials and methods to diminish the erosive action caused by the combustion gases over the heat pipes. Specimens were coated with WC12Co and Cr3C2-25NiCr alloys using the HVOF technique and the coated specimens were tested at 450°C, the heat pipes working temperature. Silica was used as abrasive material at 30° and 45° impact angles, simulating a harder erosive condition than the real condition. The best performance coating at laboratory scale was later used in field condition. The results showed the coated specimen performance is better than the ASTM A178 alloy. The erosion resistance of the Cr3C2-25NiCr and WC12Co coatings is eight times higher than the uncoated alloy, and the coatings also presented a better corrosion resistance. This feature is important, because despite the erosive action the circulating gases also present a large amount of sulfur in their composition. Sulfur at lower temperatures forms H2SO4, causing intense corrosion of the pipes located at the heat exchangers colder parts. Based on the results and considering the coating costs the Cr3C2-25NiCr alloy was selected to coat a set of pipes mounted at the region of the heat exchanger with the most intense erosive wear. At the moment these coated tubes are in field operation and under observation regarding their performance in comparison with the uncoated pipes located at the same heat exchanger. The real operation conditions of the coated pipes will be estimated from the field life cycle analysis, and after all the cost-benefit of the studied coating.
Authors: M. Ice, Rodolfo-Martín Rodriguez, D. Cheng, G. Kim, M. Trudeau, J. Terlecki, Enrique J. Lavernia
Authors: Stefan Lucian Toma, Iulian Ionita, Lucian Eva, Costică Bejinariu, Bogdan Istrate, Bogdan Florin Toma
Abstract: The present investigation has been conducted in order to study the fatigue and corrosion fatigue behaviour of an aluminium alloy (99,5%Al) substrate coated with a 106 MXC deposited by thermal spraying in electric arc. It has been determined that the deposition of such a coating on the aluminum substrate gives rise to significant gains in fatigue life in comparison with the uncoated substrate, when testing is carried out both in air and in a 3,5 wt.% NaCl solution. It has been shown that during testing in air, the fatigue gain ranges between ~131 and 186%, depending on the maximum alternating stress applied to the material. Larger fatigue gains are associated with low alternating stresses. Also, when fatigue testing is conducted in the NaCl solution, the gain in fatigue resistance varies between ~124 and 159%. Fatigue cracks have been observed to initiate at the coating surface and then grow towards the substrate after propagating through the entire coating thickness. Although in the present work residual stresses were not measured, it is believed that the gain in fatigue life of the coating–substrate system is due to the presence of compressive residual stresses within the coating which hinder fatigue crack propagation. The deposition of the coating does not give rise to significant changes in the static mechanical properties and hardness of the aluminum alloy substrate.
Authors: Kevin Spencer, Ming Xing Zhang
Abstract: Cold spray is an emerging coating technology that allows hardness, corrosion and wear resistance, as well as thermal and electrical properties of surfaces to be optimised. The advantages of cold spray over thermal spray are discussed, with emphasis on a new cold spray variant called Kinetic Metallization. The influence of gas dynamics on surface adhesion are examined. Examples from the literature and from the present work of corrosion and wear resistance, bond strength and cohesive strength of cold spray coatings are reviewed.
Authors: Stefan Lucian Toma, Costică Bejinariu, Diana Antonia Gheorghiu, Constantin Baciu
Abstract: Steel depositsobtained by thermal spray arc have physical-chemical and mechanical properties dependent on operational parameters of the spraying process. Thus, the electric current intensity, the spray distance, the velocity, respectively the driving gas pressure are the parameters that influence the mechanical properties of the steel deposits obtained by thermal spraying. The interaction between particles- gas drive seen in the classic arc spray has the effect the lowering of particles temperature and implicitly of the physical and mechanical properties of the deposit. Using a new device, combined, in which over the thermal field, created by the electric arc, would overlap a second thermal field, created by a gaseous fuel burning, would determine the maintaining of high temperature of the particles and implicitly changes of the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the deposit. Such a combined spraying device would be called device for spraying in electric arc-thermally activated. The paper aims to present a comparative study of the physic chemical and mechanical properties of steel deposits obtained with two spraying processes: the classical process and the combined spraying process - in electric arc thermally activated.Investigations carried out on the structure of deposits by electron microscopy SEM, XRD analysis and image analysis performed at zone level Layer-Substrate as well the deposits adherence assessment in accordance with EN 582-allows the highlighting properties, the arguing of differences between the properties of the deposits made by the two methods as well as the establishing advantages and disadvantages using those processes.
Authors: Šárka Houdková, František Zahálka, Michaela Kašparová
Abstract: The tribological properties of parts surface, namely their wear resistance and friction properties, are in many cases determining for their proper function. To improve surface properties, it is possible to create hard, wear resistant coatings by thermal spray technologies. Using these versatile coatings it is possible to increase parts lifetime, reliability and safety. The thermally sprayed cermet composite coatings show, thanks to their specific properties, excellent resistance to abrasive and erosive wear, as well as corrosion resistance. To predict the behavior, lifetime and application area of thermally sprayed cermet coatings it is necessary to completely understand the relationships between technology, process parameters, microstructure and properties of the coatings. The finding of these relationships and use this understanding to develop deposits with improved wear resistance for coating of various applications is the main aim of the presented work. It was done by studying the coatings microstructure and mechanical properties. Four different tests of wear resistance were done to study the mechanism of surface degradation, to confirm the results of mechanical testing and to predict the lifetime of coated parts - the abrasive wear performance of the coatings was assessed using a dry/sand rubber wheel test according to ASTM G-65, wet slurry abrasion test according to ASTM G-75, pin-on-disc test according to ASTM G-99 and erosion wear resistance for three impact angles. On the basis of obtained data the new possibilities of coatings application was determined, tested and implemented.
Authors: Šárka Houdková, Olga Bláhová, Michaela Kašparová
Abstract: The indentation methods (HR15N, HV0.3, HIT, EIT) were used to evaluate differences between the WC-based coatings with 12, 17 and 25% of Co binder. The two sets of WC-12%Co coatings with two different sets of parameters were sprayed to evaluate the influence of spraying parameters. The measured mechanical characteristic were correlated to the to the wear resistance of the coatings evaluated by dry sand/rubber wheel test according to ASTM G-65 and pin-on disc according to ASTM G-99. The measured results showed that there is almost no difference between the abrasive wear resistance of WC-Co coating with 12 and 17% of Co binder, while the wear of coating with 25% of Co binder is significantly higher. The importance of the spraying parameters on the WC-12%Co coatings properties has been found to be comparable to the importance of binder content influence.
Authors: Mohammad K. Alkam, P. Barry Butler
Abstract: In the present work, a numerical investigation has been performed to study the thermal behavior of a flow through a pulsed detonation thermal spray device that employs a hydrogen-air mixture. In this device, a detonation wave travels inside a detonation tube and eventually exits the tube and impinges against a substrate. Two types of substrates have been investigated, namely, a sphere and a flat-plate. The present model is based on solving the two dimensional, axisymetric Euler reactive flow equations with temperature-dependent specific heats. A global single step finite rate reaction has been considered. The present results demonstrate the effects of two main parameters on the thermal performance of the device under consideration. These parameters are: the size and shape of the substrate, and the stand off distance.
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