Papers by Keyword: Trabecular Bone

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Authors: Houda Khaterchi, Hedi Belhadjsalah
Abstract: The bone is a hierarchically structured material with mechanical properties depending on its architecture at all scales. Water plays an important role in the bio-mineralization process and serves as a plasticizer, enhancing the toughness of bone. In this paper, a trabecular bone multiscale model based on finite element analysis was developed to link scales from sub-nanoscopic scale (Microfibril) to sub-microscopic (Lamella) in order to predict the orthotropic properties of bone at different structural level. To identify the orthotropic properties, an inverse identification algorithm is used. Furthermore, the effect of water is incorporated. Good agreement is found between theoretical and experimental results.
Authors: I. Aleixo, A.C. Vale, M. Lúcio, P.M. Amaral, L.G. Rosa, J. Caetano-Lopes, A. Rodrigues, H. Canhão, J.E. Fonseca, M. Fatima Vaz
Abstract: We addressed the importance of defining a mechanical testing methodology for the compression of human trabecular bone specimens. In fact, currently there are several protocols to test trabecular bone, but a single, standard and validate method has not been accepted yet. In our work, human femoral epiphyses collected from patients with osteoporosis (fragility fractures) and hip osteoarthritis, submitted to total hip replacement surgery, were used. The aims of our work were to develop a mechanical testing methodology for the compression of trabecular bone specimens taking into account the optimization of bone extrinsic and intrinsic variables, in order to establish a patient bone sample database with clinical, structural and mechanical information. Extrinsic variables, such as the effect of specimen preparation, with particular focus on the dimensions of test specimens, and others associated with the compression test, such as the method employed to determine specimen deformation, and hence strain, were evaluated. Also, a new device used to withhold the specimens was developed and tested by the present authors. Although each specimen showed a unique behaviour, even when comparing compression curves between patients from the same disease group, implicating additional complexity and difficulty in the data analysis, the authors managed to assemble the results in two groups related with a possible difference in the deformation mechanisms occurring after yielding.
Authors: A. Abdul Rahim Rabiatul, Szali Januddi Fatihhi, Muhamad Noor Harun, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir, Syahrom Ardiyansyah
Abstract: Morphology of cancellous bone has been studied for years, with researchers always seeking accurate methods to assess the parameters. They also study the importance of cancellous morphology in itself. Despite the amount of previous research, there are currently no reviews on the morphology at different anatomy. This paper evaluate the methods and parameters of cancellous bone morphology at different human anatomy. From 1997 to February 2014 we found the articles published on cancellous bone morphology vary in parameters at different anatomy of human bone. Further, researchers are also interested in finding the precision methods for identifying the parameters of cancellous bone. Both in vitro and in vivo were used in finding the accurate result of cancellous bone parameters whilst also searching the importance of the morphology parameters. The morphology studies are vital due to the direct relation with the mechanical properties of cancellous bone. Based on the morphology data, it is found that the morphology parameters are dissimilar at different human anatomy sites. A variety of methods were used by researchers in identifying the morphology parameters, with each method having its own advantages and disadvantages. This review paper summarises the pros and cons of all methods available, in order to help researchers select the best methods for their future studies.
Authors: Chih Ling Lin, Han Huang, Bronwen W. Cribb, Anthony Russell
Abstract: Human bone fracture associated with osteoporosis was hypothesized to be related to the alteration of mechanical properties in bones. In this work, cortical and trabecular bones from human femoral heads were studied. Bone samples of eight female and four male patients, with ages varying from 37 to 93 years, were collected from total hip replacement surgery. Reduced modulus (Er) and hardness (H) of osteons, interstitial lamellae and trabeculae were characterized by nanoindentation. The results showed both the reduced modulus and hardness of the interstitial lamellae were significant higher than those of osteons and trabeculae. Though there was no significant difference in microstructures in the Group A (age < 60 years) and B (age > 60 years), the Group B bones demonstrated to be stiffer.
Authors: Tomasz Topoliński, Artur Cichański, Adam Mazurkiewicz, Krzysztof Nowicki
Abstract: In this work were presented calculated fatigue curves based on fatigue tests of trabecular bone under stepwise load with the application of a linear hypothesis accumulation of fatigue damage. The investigation was performed on 61 cylindrical bone samples obtained from the neck of different femur heads. The bone sample fatigue tests were carried out under compression with stepwise increases of the applied load. The fatigue calculation assumed the Palmgren-Miner (P-M) linear hypothesis accumulation of fatigue damage and the associated modified formulae. The obtained mean fatigue curves were based on the modified stress σ/E0 (E0 – initial stiffnes) for the assumed rule-determined slope or y-intercept. The highest agreement with the literature was obtained for Σn/N=10.
Authors: Wen Quan Cui, Ye Yeon Won, Myong Hyun Baek, Kwang Kyun Kim
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of the microstructural properties of trabecular bone in predicting its elastic modulus in the intertrochanteric region. A total of 15 trabecular bone core specimens were obtained from the proximal femurs of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. The micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was used to scan each specimen to obtain micro-morphology. Microstructural parameters were directly calculated using software. Micro-CT images were converted to micro-finite element model using meshing technique, and then micro-finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to assess the mechanical property (Young’s modulus) of trabecular bone. The results showed that the ability to explain this variance of Young’s modulus is improved by combining the structural indices with each other. It suggested that assessment of bone microarchitecture should be added as regards detection of osteoporosis and evaluation of the efficacy of drug treatments for osteoporosis.
Authors: Dae Gon Woo, Han Sung Kim, Chang Yong Ko, Beob Yi Lee, Gye Rae Tack, Young Ho Kim
Abstract: In the present study, changes of morphologies and mechanical characteristics in the lumbar vertebrae of the ovariectomised (OVX) rats were investigated and analyzed by Finite Element (FE) and Rapid-Prototyped (RP) models based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). In previous researches, there were many studies about morphology such as bone mineral density and trabecular microstructure. However, detecting and tracking local changes were few in the trabecular and cortical bone of the lumbar vertebrae for the OVX rats. Experimental and simulated studies were used to investigate mechanical characteristics of the lumbar vertebral bones for the OVX rats. Three dimensional (3D) geometries of the models (RP and FE models), generated from in-vivo micro-CT scan data, were obtained from the 4th lumbar of the OVX rats. Three specimens (whole vertebral, trabecular and cortical bone models) were generated and analyzed in the simulated compression tests. For further verification, the experimental compression test for RP models ‘instead of real bone specimens’ was performed to indirectly validate the results of the simulated compression test for the FE models. The results were similar to those of the compression test simulated by micro-FE analysis. The present study showed the efficiency of the combined method (FE and RP techniques based on in-vivo micro-CT) as a nondestructive evaluation.
Authors: Renae Mulligan, Ling Yin, Anthony Lamont, Zhong Xiao Peng, Mark R. Forwood, Swee Hin Teoh
Abstract: Bone biopsy is a common procedure in bone disease diagnoses, therapies and research. In this procedure, bone biopsy needles are inserted into bone tissues. Although needle insertion into bone is often essential for the diagnosis of bone diseases, the hard tissue-needle interactions are not quantitatively understood. In this paper, we describe a quantitative assessment of forces involved in insertion of healthy trabecular bone using clinically applied Jamshidi CrownTM bone biopsy needles of gauge 8 (4-mm diameter). The measured forces were related to the insertion depths up to 25 mm and insertion rates of 1 mm/s to 5 mm/s. At the initial insertion stage, a clear linear force-depth relation was measured. With the increase of the insertion depth, the forces increased nonlinearly. In the final stage of insertion, the forces increased much more quickly at the lower insertion rate than that at the higher insertion rate. The maximum insertion force reached approximately 1000 N when the insertion depth reached 25 mm at the insertion rate of 1 mm/s.
Authors: Khairul Salleh Basaruddin, Naoki Takano
Abstract: This study presents a prediction of apparent elastic moduli of vertebral trabecular bone using the homogenization method. A micro-finite element (FE) model of trabecular bone was reconstructed from a sequential of cross-section micro-CT image by converting bone voxels to brick elements. Eight regions of interest (ROIs) were extracted from two lumbar vertebra bone specimens of healthy and osteoporotic. The homogenization method and finite element method was employed to analyze the microscopic trabecular bone. Bone tissue property was modeled as orthotropy material considering the biological apatite (BAp) crystallite orientation. This research focuses on the effect of morphological difference between healthy and osteoporotic bones to the apparent elastic moduli. The change of degree of anisotropy was also discussed. Comparison of the calculated Youngs moduli in vertical axis with Keyak et al.s experimental result showed good agreement and proved the reliability of the numerical model.
Authors: Szali Januddi Fatihhi, Syahrom Ardiyansyah, Muhamad Noor Harun, A. Abdul Rahim Rabiatul, Abdullah Jaafar, Afriwardi
Abstract: The relationship between morphological parameter and different type of loading orientation on elastic behavior and yielding of trabecular may provide insight towards osteoporotic bone losses during normal activities. This paper attempts to predict the elastic and failure behavior of different loading modes (tensile and compression) on anatomic sites and morphological indices through finite element (FE) simulation. Specimens extracted from bovine femoral trabecular bone were imaged using micro computed tomography (μCT). Morphological studies were done followed by FE analysis. Results demonstrated differences between yield behaviors on anatomic sites were reflected onto the morphological indices and the type of loading modes. The yield initiated earlier in rod-like than plate-like trabecular in both loading condition but showed different failure behavior in rod-like trabecular with small differences in maximum stress between tensile and compressive. However, in many cases, trabecular models tend to have oblique fracture pattern in all anatomic sites. Through these findings, improved prediction of elastic properties and yield behavior by computational means provide insight in the development of bone substitute material depending on the anatomic site as well as in osteoporotic bone pathological treatment to monitor losses in trabecular struts.
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