Papers by Keyword: Transformation

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Authors: Roumen H. Petrov, Orlando León-García, Hemant Sharma, Kyoo Young Lee, S. Eric Offerman, Leo Kestens
Abstract: Texture formation during an austempering treatment of a TRIP-assisted steel was studied by in-situ texture measurements with a high energy source (synchrotron). Samples from a cold rolled sheet were subjected to a complete heat treatment cycle for TRIP steels including reheating to the intercritical (α+γ) temperature region, isothermal soaking and bainitic holding (austempering) at 400°C for 600s. At specific points of the thermal cycle {200}γ, {220}γ {222}γ, {331}γ and {200}α, {211}α and {220}α Debye rings were recorded and the corresponding incomplete pole figures were calculated. The latter were used to derive the orientation distribution functions (ODFs) of BCC and FCC phases at specific steps of the annealing process after assuming the orthotropic sample symmetry. The acquired data for the texture evolution during the α–γ–α phase transformation showed that during the reheating for intercritical annealing the gamma phase with {011} orientation is among the first to nucleate from the recrystallized α phase during heating and the Goss and Cube orientations are among the principal gamma phase components which transform to BCC phase after cooling.
Authors: Xiang He Peng, Min Mei Chen, Jun Wang
Abstract: A constitutive model is developed for shape memory alloys (SMAs) based on the concept that an SMA is a mixture composed of austenite and martensite. The deformation of the martensite is separated into elastic, thermal, reorientation and plastic parts, and that of the austenite is separated into elastic, thermal and plastic parts. The volume fraction of each phase is determined with the modified Tanaka’s transformation rule. The typical constitutive behavior of some SMAs, including pseudoelasticity, shape memory effect, plastic deformation as well as its effects, is analyzed.
Authors: Ravi Subban, Pasupathi Perumalsamy, G. Annalakshmi
Abstract: This paper presents a novel method for skin segmentation in color images using piece-wise linear bound skin detection. Various color schemes are investigated and evaluated to find the effect of color space transformation over the skin detection performance. The comprehensive knowledge about the various color spaces helps in skin color modeling evaluation. The absence of the luminance component increases performance, which also supports in finding the appropriate color space for skin detection. The single color component produces the better performance than combined color component and reduces computational complexity.
Authors: Sin Su Kyoung, Eun Sik Jung, Tai Young Kang, Chang Heon Yang, Man Young Sung
Abstract: To improve the high resistance and low Breakdown Voltage (BV) of 4H-SiC SBD, the metal annealing process is usually used to to stabilize SBH. We confirmed that post metal annealing after the chip process also stabilizes SBH by the post annealing experiment of applying failure chips (4H-SiC Ti/Al SBD) that have a forward current (IF) under 1 [A] with high resistance, because of the metal annealing process error. The result of experiments showed that the IF increment and BV decrement are proportional to the applied temperatures over 450 °C, and the second additional post annealing shows a decrease of IF and BV. Aluminum and Titanium transformation with post metal annealing made a decrease of SBH, so that the on-resistance is decreased and BV is decreased (in severe cases, the intense post annealing generates Aluminum spiking). From a result of this work, using a suitable post metal annealing, we can improve the IF of SiC SBD with a high resistance failure from the metal process event.
Authors: Yong Qing Ma, Xiao Jing Zhang, Yu Fen Liang, Guo Fang Liu
Abstract: The processing of austenite catalytic cryogenic treatment of two components of Cr-W-Mo-V high alloy medium-upper carbon steels and the effect on the retained austenite transformation and tempering hardness were studied in this paper. The results show that, the effect of austenite catalytic cryogenic treatment of Cr-W-Mo-V high alloy medium-upper carbon steel is better than that of direct cryogenic treatment after quenching, and the content of residual austenite reduced to below 5%, and the hardness improved by 1.5HRC than that of conventional quenching and tempering. The retained austenite catalytic temperature of Cr-W-Mo-V high alloy medium-upper carbon steel merely is higher than 10°C~20°C of the temperature for the highest tempering hardness. Catalytic temperature Tc can be determined by experimental method of conventional quenching and tempering of the steel, in which the microstructure feature is precipitation of M3C carbide particle of 0.01μm~0.03μm in martensite matrix, and the content of retained austenite decreases evidently. By cryogenic treatment after the austenite catalyzed the retained austenite of quenching are transformed into more martensite, and in the subsequent tempering processing the original quenching martensite and the martensite from retained austenite transformation almost will form synchronous precipitation hardening. Thus the tempering hardness improves evidently as well.
Authors: Zhi Min Liu, He Wen Xiong, Hao Xie, Yu Tao Qin, Yan Ran Zhao, Bei Guo
Abstract: The plasmid (with resistant the herbicide glyphosate gene EPSPS and glufosinate resistance screening gene Bar) was transferred into soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] by agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and the Bar gene as the selectable marker coupled with glufosinate as a selective agent is described. This method used for transformation requires without tissue culture steps. Soybean seeds were germinated for 1 day, plumule, cotyledonary node, and adjacent regions were wounded with the tip. The wounded half-seeds were inoculated with agrobacterium tumefaciens cells harboring a recombinant DNA that contained the EPSPS and Bar genes. Polymerase chain reaction and two herbicides screened proved that the EPSPS gene has been transferred into soybean successfully; the transformation rate of soybean about was 0.37%.
Authors: Mao Sheng Cao, Hai Bo Jin, Jin Gang Li, Liang Zhang, Qiang Xu, Xiang Li, Lan Tian Xiong
Abstract: SiO2/ SiO2 nanocomposites dipped with silicon resin was ablated and the physical state and phase transformation were characterized. Trace impurity in raw material and compound obtained by chemical reaction were analyzed. Moreover, the high-temperature dielectric properties were investigated. On the basis of above, it is found that the impurity carbon and silicon carbide are the key factors influencing dielectric properties.
Authors: Dong Mei Chen
Abstract: We present a new architecture for information transformation that leads practical information refinery to a abstract level in order to support concepts-based information finding for the Grid. The overall goal of the architecture is to provide abstract content descriptions of network resource to achIRve precise information finding.
Authors: S. Yoneda, E. Ohta, Yoshikazu Shinohara, T. Kimura, Isao A. Nishida, H.T. Kaibe
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