Papers by Keyword: TWIP Steel

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Authors: L. Pentti Karjalainen, Mahesh C. Somani, Atef S. Hamada
Abstract: Processing of a large number of novel steel types, such as DP, TRIP, CP and TWIP, and high-strength low-carbon bainitic and martensitic DQ-T steels, have been developed based on physical simulation and modelling studies. Among stainless steels, guidelines for processing of ultra-fine grained austenitic stainless steels have been created. Physical simulation has been used by employing a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator to reveal the phenomena occurring in the hot rolling stage (the flow resistance, recrystallization kinetics and microstructure evolution), and in the cooling stage (CCT diagrams) for carbon steels and in short-term annealing of cold rolled metastable austenitic steels. Connecting these data with microstructures examined in optical and electron microscopes and resultant mechanical properties have improved the understanding on complex phenomena occurring in the processing of these steels and the role of numerous process variables in the optimization of enhanced mechanical properties.
Authors: Christian Haase, Luis Antonio Barrales-Mora, Dmitri A. Molodov, Günter Gottstein
Abstract: A recently introduced processing route consisting of cold rolling and recovery annealing allows the production of TWIP steels with high yield strength along with appreciable uniform elongation due to the thermal stability of mechanically induced nanoscale twins. A wide range of strength-ductility combinations was obtained using recovery and recrystallization annealing of 30%, 40%, and 50% cold-rolled Fe-23Mn-1.5Al-0.3C TWIP steel. Texture measurement during cold rolling and annealing was proven to be a suitable tool to determine the optimal deformation degree and annealing time for this processing method. As a consequence, texture analysis can be used to predict the final materials properties.
Authors: Valeria Mertinger, Erzsebet Nagy, Márton Benke, Ferenc Tranta
Abstract: Austenitic FeMnCr steels have high strength, high toughness and formability because of the stress-and strain-induced γ→α and γ→ε martensitic phase transformations. These are the so-called TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) and TWIP (Twining induced Plasticity) effects. TWIP steels deform by both glide of individual dislocations and mechanical twinning [1]. The type and mechanism of the austenite→martensite transformation depends on the composition, deformation rate and temperature. The ratio and quantity of the resulting phases determine the properties of the product. It is known that austenitic steels can transform into α and/or ε martensite phases during plastic deformation The characteristics of the martensitic transformations induced by uni-axial tensile tests between room temperature and 200°C in a FeMnCr steel with 2,26 w% Cr content were examined. Mechanical properties as, yield stress were determined from tensile tests. Metallographic examinations, quantitative and qualitative phase analysis by X-ray diffraction were carried out on the uniformly elongated part of the samples (cross, longitudinal sections).
Authors: Wei Ping Bao, Zhi Ping Xiong, Fu Ming Wang, Jian Shu, Xue Ping Ren
Abstract: Dynamic mechanical properties and microstructures of pure iron and Fe-30Mn-3Si-4Al TWIP (TWinning Induced Plasticity) steel were conducted by SHPB (Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar), OM (Optical Microscopy) and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope), at the strain rate ranging from 102 to 105 s-1 and at room temperature. The effect of high strain rate on the mechanical responses of pure iron and Fe-30Mn-3Si-4Al TWIP steel belonging to BCC (Body Centered Cubic) and FCC (Face Centered Cubic) structures respectively was evaluated. The comparison of deformation mechanism was analyzed between them and it concluded that dislocation gliding is a major deformation mechanism in pure iron with BCC structure and deformation twinning plays a significant role in Fe-30Mn-3Si-4Al TWIP steel with FCC structure.
Authors: Gholam Reza Razavi, Hossein Monajati
Abstract: TWIP steels are high Mn (17-35%) austenitic steels having strength and ductility concurrently. This makes them suitable for applications that need high strength and ductility like gas tanks and oil platforms. To these applications corrosion resistance of these steel is also of paramount importance and needs to be noticed. This was achieved by two usual methods of weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization of the samples, after that they casted and hot rolled in experimental scale. The observed corrosion pits are related to the chemical composition. It is connected with the high dissolution rate of Mn and Fe atoms in NaCl solution. Fractographic analyses of samples revealed corrosion products on their surface in a form of pits with diversified size.
Authors: Atef S. Hamada, L. Pentti Karjalainen, Mahesh C. Somani, R.M. Ramadan
Abstract: The hot deformation behaviour of two high-Mn (23-24 wt-%) TWIP steels containing 6 and 8 wt-% Al with the fully austenitic and duplex microstructures, respectively, has been investigated at temperatures of 900-1100°C. In addition, tensile properties were determined over the temperature range from -80 to 100°C. It was observed that in spite of the lower Al content, the austenitic steel possessed the hot deformation resistance about twice as high as that of the duplex steel. Whereas the flow stress curves of the austenitic steel exhibited work hardening followed by slight softening due to dynamic recrystallisation, the duplex steel showed the absence of work hardening and discontinuous yielding under similar conditions. Tensile tests at low temperatures revealed that the austenitic grade had a lower yield strength than that of the duplex grade, but much better ductility, the elongation increasing with decreasing temperature, contrary to that for the duplex steel. This can be attributed to the intense mechanical twinning in the austenitic steel, while in the duplex steel, twinning occurred in the ferrite only and the austenite showed dislocation glide.
Authors: Zhanna Yanushkevich, Andrey Belyakov, Rustam Kaibyshev, Christian Haase, Dmitri A. Molodov
Abstract: The regularities of static recrystallization in an Fe-0.3C-17Mn-1.5Al TWIP steel subjected to cold rolling and annealing were studied. The cold rolling led to noticeable increase in the dislocation density, extensive mechanical twinning and shear banding. The subsequent annealing resulted in the development of recovered or recrystallized microstructure depending on the rolling reduction and the annealing temperature. An increase in the rolling reduction promoted the recrystallization development, which led to ultrafine-grained microstructure with a grain size below 10 μm. The developed ultrafine-grained steel samples are characterized by beneficial mechanical properties.
Authors: Hai Jun Liu, Ding Yi Zhu, Xian Peng, Zhen Ming Hu, Ming Jie Wang
Abstract: Strain rate jump tests were performed on the Fe-Mn-Cu-C TWIP Steels to determine the strain rate sensitivity, and serrated plastic flow was observed in the stress-strain curves during tensile tests at different constant strain rates ranging from 2.5×10-4S-1 to 2.5×10-2S-1. The Fe-Mn-Cu-C TWIP Steels exhibit high work hardening rate and outstanding mechanical properties, The excellent mechanical properties are attributed to dynamic strain aging(DSA) effect, which result from the interaction between Mn(Cu)-C atom atmosphere, C-vacancy, C-C pairs and moving dislocations.
Authors: Pavel Kusakin, Andrey Belyakov, Rustam Kaibyshev, Dmitri A. Molodov
Abstract: Effect of cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a Fe-23Mn-0.3C-1.5Al (in wt. %) TWIP steel with an initial grain size of 24 μm was studied. Extensive deformation twinning occurred upon reduction by rolling. The volume fraction of the deformation twins attained about 0.2 at a reduction of 20%. Then, the intensity of deformation twinning gradually decreased with increasing the total rolling reduction. The average twin thickness of about 20 nm remained unchanged, although the distance between twins progressively reduced with increasing strain. The deformation banding was observed after a reduction of 60%. The thickness and volume fraction of microshear bands increased with increasing rolling reduction. The cold rolling led to significant strengthening of the steel that is accompanied by a drop on ductility. The yield stress (YS) increased from 235 MPa in the initial state to 1400 MPa after cold rolling with a reduction of 80%, whereas the elongation to failure decreased from 96% to 4%, respectively.
Authors: Mahesh C. Somani, Henri Tervonen, L. Pentti Karjalainen, David A. Porter
Abstract: In this study, the constitutive flow behavior and static recrystallization characteristics of a Nb-microalloyed TWIP (Fe-20Mn-1.5Al-0.1Nb) steel under hot deformation conditions have been determined and results compared with those of Fe-25Mn-Al TWIP steels. Investigations using compression testing in a Gleeble simulator, including the double-hit technique, enabled the acquisition of flow stress and recrystallization data. These were analyzed to determine the powers of strain and strain rate as well as the activation energies of deformation and recrystallization (Qdef and Qrex). For given deformation and grain size parameters, the time for 50% recrystallization (t50) of the 0.1% Nb TWIP steel was significantly longer than for the Nb-free TWIP steel: it was comparable to that of Nb-microalloyed carbon steel. Qrex was higher than that of Type 304 stainless steel that has nevertheless much longer t50 times.
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