Papers by Keyword: Ultrafine Grained Microstructure

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Authors: Marie Kvapilová, Vaclav Sklenička, Jiří Dvořák, Petr Král
Abstract: Our earlier published creep data are analyzed for ultrafine-grained pure aluminium and copper processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). The analysis demonstrates conclusively that creep occurs in the investigated materials after ECAP by the same mechanism as in conventional coarse-grained materials with intergranular dislocation glide and climb as the dominant rate-controlling flow process. Under creep conditions examined in this work diffusion creep is not important in pure aluminium and copper because the ultrafine grains are unstable at elevated and/or high temperature creep and the grains grow sufficiently to preclude any significant contribution from Nabarro-Herring or Coble creep.
Authors: Kaveh Edalati, Z. Horita
Abstract: Pure metals of 30 elements with various crystal structures (bcc, fcc, hcp, diamond cubic, complex cubic, primitive hexagonal and tetragonal) are processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT) and their mechanical properties are subsequently evaluated by Vickers microhardness measurements. For all metals, the hardness reaches steady states at large strains where the hardness remains unchanged with further straining. It is shown that the hardness values at the steady state are characteristics of each metal and are successfully expressed as a unique function of the homologous temperature, shear modulus and physical parameters of metals such as melting temperature, specific heat capacity and diffusion coefficient except for a few elements. The findings are well applicable to predict the ultimate steady-state hardness of metals attained by HPT processing through the correlation established in this study.
Authors: Lilia R. Saitova, Heinz Werner Höppel, Matthias Göken, A.R. Kilmametov, Irina P. Semenova, Ruslan Valiev
Abstract: Ti-6Al-4V ELI (extra low interstitials) was processed by equal channel angular pressing in order to obtain an ultrafine-grained (UFG) microstructure which is known to enhance the fatigue behavior of metallic materials. Fatigue properties of UFG Ti-6Al-4V ELI were studied by strain and stress controlled fatigue tests. UFG Ti-6Al-4V ELI shows an improvement of the fatigue behavior compared to conventional grain (CG) size counterpart. Microstructural investigations prior to and after fatigue testing confirm a high structural stability of the UFG material. Hence, the UFG alloy has a high potential for prospective use in biomedical and engineering applications.
Authors: Irena Topic, Heinz Werner Höppel, Matthias Göken
Abstract: Commercial purity aluminium AA1050 and aluminium alloy AA6016 were accumulative roll bonded and subsequently friction stir welded. The microstructure of the conventional and ultrafine-grained materials produced by accumulative roll bonding is strongly affected by friction stir welding. The elongated ultrafine-grained microstructure of roll bonded sheets becomes coarser and equiaxed in the nugget region. Hydraulic bulge tests showed that higher burst pressure can be achieved for samples without friction stir welding than for the ones with friction stir welding. Localised deformation, crack initiation and propagation, as well as the final fracture occurred within the nugget. Friction stir welded AA1050 sheet showed similar achievable burst pressures and von Mises equivalent strains compared to the as-received conventionally grained sheets. On the other hand, significantly higher burst pressures and at the same time higher von Mises equivalent strains were observed for the friction stir welded ultrafine-grained material than for the friction stir welded conventionally grained material.
Authors: Hiroyuki Miki, Noboru Nakayama, Hiroyuku Takeishi
Abstract: A new method of solidifying metal powder by dynamic molding under compression stress was developed. In the solidified specimen, recrystallization is suppressed, so that nanoscale crystal grains remain. The hardness of the specimen prepared by this process is increased relative to materials prepared by other methods. The material properties and preferred orientation of an aluminum plate with crystal grains 100−200 nm in diameter prepared by the new molding process are reported. The correlation between the crystal structure and properties of crystallization are clarified.
Authors: Vàclav Sklenička, Jiří Dvořák, Marie Kvapilová, Milan Svoboda, Petr Král, Ivan Saxl, Z. Horita
Abstract: This paper examines the effect of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) on creep behaviour of pure aluminium, binary Al-0.2wt.%Sc alloy and ternary Al-3wt.%Mg-0.2wt.%Sc alloy. The ECAP was conducted at room temperature with a die that had a 90° angle between the channels and 8 repetitive ECAP passes followed route BC. Constant stress compression creep tests were performed at 473 K and stresses ranging between 16 to 80 MPa on ECAP materials and, for comparison purposes, on the initial coarse-grained materials. The results showed that the creep resistance of the ECAP processed Al-Sc and Al-Mg-Sc alloys was markedly deteriorated with respect to unpressed coarse-grained materials.
Authors: Vàclav Sklenička, Jiří Dvořák, Milan Svoboda, Petr Král, B. Vlach
Abstract: Aluminum-based alloys containing quasicrystalline particles of 50 – 600 nm in diameter as a reinforcing phase were produced in the form of powder or ribbons by water atomization or melt spinning techniques, respectively. Rods were compacted from powders and some ribbons by severe plastic deformation without sintering. Structure and mechanical behavior of alloys are discussed.
Authors: Sergey Malopheyev, Vladislav Kulitskiy, Sergey Mironov, Daria Zhemchuzhnikova, Rustam Kaibyshev
Abstract: The microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded Al-5.4Mg-0.2Sc-0.1Zr alloy were studied. Defect-free welds were produced in hot extruded, hot rolled and cold rolled initial conditions. Friction stir welding led to the formation of ultrafine-grained structure in stir zone that contributes to overall strengthening. Coherent Al3(Sc,Zr) dispersoids retain partially during welding process that provides a joint efficiency close to 100% in the hot extruded and hot rolled materials. In the cold-rolled state the joint efficiency was found to be only 64%. The relatively low weld strength of the cold rolled material was attributed to the elimination of strain hardening due to the formation of recrystallized structure. It was shown that full strength weld can be achieved in semi-finished products of Al-Mg-Sc alloys in cold-worked and stabilized states being equal to H323 and H341 tempering by friction stir welding.
Authors: Marion Merklein, Uwe Vogt
Abstract: High strength aluminum blanks can be obtained by grain-refinement due to an Accumulativ Roll Bonding (ARB) process, in which two sheets are iteratively brushed, stacked on top of each other and subsequently rolled together. The high shear stresses during the rolling cycles result in an ultrafine-grained microstructure with an average grain size ranging between 200 to 1000 nm. Whereas the grain-refinement causes a drastically increased strength of the aluminum material, the formability of the ARB-blanks made of industrially used aluminum alloys such as the AA6016 deteriorates to the same degree as the strength rises. In this context, a local heat treatment of the ARB-blank reducing the material’s strength and increasing its ductility in specific zones will allow to recover the blank’s formability again. The research work presented in this paper studies the microstructural effects of a short-term heat treatment on the mechanical properties of ARB-blanks made of AA6016. Experimental investigations including hardness measurements, tensile tests as well as microscopic analyses show that heat treatments of only several seconds already result in significant increases of the material’s ductility and decreases of the material’s strength. By applying these microstructural mechanisms in terms of a specific heat treatment layout, functional gradients of strength and ductility adapted to the succeeding forming operation can be setup significantly enhancing the ARB-blank’s formability.
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