Papers by Keyword: Weld Residual Stress

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Authors: Jonathan Mullins, Jens Gunnars
Abstract: Residual stresses predicted from welding simulations are known to be sensitive to the choice of material model. Recent work has shown large differences in the predicted residual stress profile when different types of hardening model are used (isotropic, kinematic or mixed models). More information is required regarding the exact deformation conditions that exist during welding. We consider finite element models of two multi-pass, stainless steel girth welds. Temperature, stress and plastic strain histories are recorded in the weld material and in the heat affected region (HAZ). Material in the weld and HAZ is observed to undergo three to five cycles of active plastic deformation followed by thermal cycling that is purely elastic. The stress state varies from biaxial compression to triaxial tension. These deformation histories are used as the basis for a discussion of the formulation of a suitable material testing schedule and subsequent constitutive modelling.
Authors: Sayeed Hossain, Ed J. Kingston, Christopher E. Truman, David John Smith
Abstract: The main objective of the present study is to validate a simple over-coring deep-hole drilling (oDHD) residual stress measurement technique by utilising finite element simulations of the technique. A number of three dimensional (3D) finite element analyses (FEA) were carried out to explore the influence of material removal and the cutting sequence during the deep-hole drilling (DHD) residual stress measurement process on the initial residual stress field. Two models were considered in the study. First, the residual stress field predicted in a rapid spray water quenched solid cylinder was used as the initial stress field for the DHD FE model. The DHD reconstructed residual stresses were compared with the initial FE predicted stresses. Different cutting sequences and different dimensions were systematically simulated before arriving at an optimum solution for the oDHD technique. The oDHD technique significantly improved the spatial resolution and was applied in a second model consisting of a 40mm thick butt-welded pipe. The DHD reconstructed residual stresses compared very well with the initial FE predicted weld residual stress thereby validating the oDHD technique.
Authors: M.O. Acar, P. John Bouchard, Joao Quinta da Fonseca, Michael E. Fitzpatrick, S. Gungor
Abstract: Neutron diffraction has been used to investigate the weld residual stresses and the intergranular residual strains in butt-welded 316H pipes. Measurements have been made on pipes subjected to varying degrees of plastic pre-straining before welding, in order to assess the effects of plastic strain on the weld residual stresses and the intergranular strains in the material. The intergranular strains following plastic deformation will also be affected by the annealing effect of the welding. Pipes were initially prepared with plastic strain of 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25% plastic deformation. Thereafter, the pipes were cut in half and welded with a circumferential butt-weld. Bar specimens were extracted from the remote end of the 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25% pre-strained and welded pipes. Cross-weld bar specimens were also machined from the 0 and 20% pre-strained and welded pipes. Neutron diffraction measurements were made at ENGIN-X, ISIS and FRM-II, Munich. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the intergranular strains developed after pre-straining from measurements made in remote bar specimens from the remote-end of the pipes. The annealing effect of the welding cycle on the intergranular strains is also studied, with measurements done at several points on cross-weld bar specimens, obtaining the strain response of different hkl lattice planes. The results show that the {200} and {220} planes are at the extremes of response during loading. Furthermore, the welding thermal cycling relaxed the intergranular strains from the prior plastic deformation.
Authors: Kenji Suzuki, Takahisa Shobu, Ayumi Shiro, Shuo Yuan Zhang
Abstract: The spiral slit-system was improved in order to make a gauge length regularity. The bending stress was measured by the improved spiral slit-system, and the measured stresses corresponded to the applied stress regardless of the diffraction angle. As a result, the validity of the improved spiral slit-system was proved. On the other hand, the diffraction spot trace method (DSTM), which combined the spiral slit-system and a PILATUS detector, was proposed to measure stress in a coarse grain. In this study, the distribution of the residual stress in a melt-run welding specimen was measured using the DSTM. The welding residual stresses measured accorded with that by the FEM simulation.
Authors: Deng Feng Wang, Yuan Qing Wang, Yong Jiu Shi, Bin Fang
Abstract: The section of the column under axial compression used in a certain electrostatic precipitator is composed of double H shaped steel limbs and the stiffened connecting web by weld. As the width of connecting web usually exceeds 3 times of the section height of H shaped steel, the axis which connecting web lies in is the weaker axis for the stiffness of column section, while the midperpendicular of connecting web is the stronger axis. In consideration of initial geometrical imperfections and weld residual stresses, the study on stability round the stronger axis of column subjected to axial compression by nonlinear finite element method is conducted. The research results indicate that the column doesn’t present the flexural buckling round the stronger axis, but present the elasto-plastic flexural-torsional buckling. A buckling factor is produced to measure the stability performance of column round stronger axis. When the connecting channel shaped steels between two limbs and the stiffeners located on connecting web are strengthened, the buckling factor increases slightly. When the width-thickness ratio of connecting web increases, the buckling factor decreases significantly. When the slenderness of H shaped steel round the stronger axis is kept constant and the height-thickness ratio of H-shaped steel web increases, the buckling factor increases. Based on a great many computation results, the regressed recommendation is proposed how to evaluate the design buckling bearing capacity of column under axial compression round stronger axis.
Authors: Dong Xiao Qiao, Xing Hua Yu, Wei Zhang, Paul Crooker Yu, Stan David, Zhi Li Feng
Abstract: Stainless steel has been widely used in challenging environments typical to nuclear power plant structures, due its excellent corrosion resistance. Nickel filler metals containing high chromium concentration, including Alloy 82/182, are used for joining stainless steel to carbon steel components to achieve similar high resistance to stress corrosion cracking. However, the joint usually experience weld metal stress corrosion cracking (SCC), which affects the safety and structural integrity of light water nuclear reactor systems. A primary driving force for SCC is the high tensile residual stress in these welds. Due to large dimension of pressure vessel and limitations in the field, non-destructive residual stress measurement is difficult. As a result, finite element modeling has been the de facto method to evaluate the weld residual stresses. Recent studies on this subject from researchers worldwide report different residual stress value in the weldments [5]. The discrepancy is due to the fact that most of investigations ignore or underestimate the thermal recovery in the heat-affect zone or reheated region in the weld. In the current study, the effect of heat treatment on thermal recovery and microhardness is investigated for materials used in dissimilar metal joint. It is found that high equivalent plastic strains are predominately accumulated in the buttering layer, the root pass, and the heat affected zone, which experience multiple welding thermal cycles. The final cap passes, experiencing only one or two welding thermal cycles, exhibit less plastic strain accumulation. Moreover, the experimental residual plastic strains are compared with those predicted using an existing weld thermo-mechanical model with two different strain hardening rules. The importance of considering the dynamic strain hardening recovery due to high temperature exposure in welding is discussed for the accurate simulation of weld residual stresses and plastic strains. Finally, the experimental result reveals that the typical post-buttering heat treatment for residual stress relief may not be adequate to completely eliminate the residual plastic strains in the buttering layer.
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