Papers by Keyword: Wood Polymer Composite

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Authors: Apisit Kositchaiyong, Narongrit Sombatsompop
Abstract: The anti-fungal and anti-algal growth performances of wood poly (vinyl chloride) composite (WPVC) and poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) containing either fungicides or algaecides at various concentrations were quantitatively evaluated using biological standard tests. The commercial fungicides, namely Carbendazim and IPBC in range of 10,000-50,000 ppm, and algaecides, namely Terbutryn and Isoproturon in range of 250-1,500 ppm, were incorporated into PVC and PVC composites with a fixed wood flour content of 100 pph. Disk diffusion test and dry weight technique, using Aspergillus niger as testing fungi, were used for anti-fungal evaluation while inhibition zone test using Chlorella vulgaris as testing algae, were utilized for anti-algal evaluation. The results suggested that IPBC exhibited better anti-fungal efficiency than Carbendazim for both PVC and WPVC composites, especially at the suggested IPBC concentrations of 30,000 ppm or higher. Terbutryn showed better anti-algal efficiency than Isoproturon. The recommended loadings of Terbutryn for complete algae killing were 1,000 and 500 ppm for neat PVC and WPVC composites, respectively. The wood particles added in PVC were found to improve the anti-fungal and anti-algal properties in PVC composites, which could be regarded as “anti-microbial promoter” under the commercial biocides used in this work.
Authors: Yu Han, Da Wei Qi, Shu Yue Guan
Abstract: CT technology was used in nondestructive testing procedure of Wood-plastic composite in the paper as well as computes the CT number range of different Wood-plastic composite tomography slices in statistic method. A fitting mathematical model between CT number and Wood-plastic composite density was Calculated, because of the linear relationship exists between Wood-plastic composite density and CT number. Hence, a new method in the nondestructive testing of Wood-plastic composite density was provided.
Authors: Chana Prapruddivongs, Narongrit Sombatsompop
Abstract: Anti-bacterial and biodegradation activities of Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and wood flour/PLA composites (WPLA) were investigated for the effect of anti-bacterial agent addition. Silver substituted Zeolite (commercially designated as Zeomic) was used as anti-bacterial agent in this study. Anti-bacterial activities were investigated through dynamic shake flask method accompanying with plate count agar (PCA) technique, against Staphylococcus aureus as testing bacteria. The results of anti-bacterial activity were reported by viable cell count. For biodegradation test, the degree and rate of biodegradations were evaluated from percentage of carbon conversion, the test being carried out under laboratory controlled-aerobic degradation environment at a temperature of 58±2°C. The results found that addition of Zeomic did not perform anti-bacterial activities for both the neat PLA and WPLA due to non-diffusivity of silver in Zeomic. For biodegradation test, both PLA and WPLA samples during incubation times of 21-60 days had shown considerable biodegradation rates as a result of chain scission by hydrolysis reaction and subsequent enzymatic-biodegradation by microorganism of PLA molecules. Regarding the effect of wood and Zeomic addition, it was found that introducing wood and Zeomic in PLA matrix tended to markedly increase the degree and rate of biodegradation of PLA and WPLA materials, whereby the PLA having 10%wt of wood with 1.5%wt of Zeomic had the most satisfactory biodegradation level and rate as a consequence of accelerated hydrolysis degradation from moisture in wood and Zeomic.
Authors: Yong Feng Li, Xiao Ying Dong, Yi Xing Liu
Abstract: The fast-growing poplar wood, Populus ussuriensis Kom, was prepared into wood-polymer composite by the in-situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and styrene (St) under vacuum/pressure and subsequent catalyst-thermal conditions. SEM observation, FTIR, XRD and DMA analysis indicated that the resulted polymer well filled up wood cell lumen in an amorphous form and physically reinforce wood matrix, which resulted in the improvement of glass transition temperature and storage modulus of wood. Such method could endow low-quality wood with potential value-added applications.
Authors: Yong Feng Li, Yun Lin Fu, Hua Wei Huang, Yi Xing Liu
Abstract: Michelia macclurei wood with moderate strength is a fast-growing wood in South China. However, it has not been fully utilized. We first prepared it into wood-polymer composite with purpose of good performance by impregnating methyl methacrylate monomer (MMA) into wood pores and following in-situ polymerization. The micro structure of wood-polymer composite, and the morphology and reaction of polymer in wood were characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD. The SEM observation showed that the MMA monomer polymerized into polymer under the employed conditions and filled up wood cell cavity. FTIR analysis indicated that the monomer rarely reacted with wood cell wall during its polymerization. XRD characterized that the polymer from MMA monomer mainly physically existed in wood pores and remained as an amorphous form.
Authors: Ding Wang Gong, Zhen Bo Liu, Hua Wei Huang, Chang Qing Zhang, Chen Liang
Abstract: Fast-growing plant wood, Micheliamacclurel wood, was modified by formation of wood-polymer composite to improve its decay resistance. Two functional monomers, glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, added with a few Azo-bis-isobutryonitrile as initiator, and maleic anhydride as catalyst, were first impregnated into wood cell lumen under a vacuum-pressure condition, and then in-situ polymerized into copolymers through a catalyst-thermal treatment. The decay resistances of untreated wood and wood-polymer composites were assessed by weight loss and compared by SEM observations. SEM and FTIR analysis indicated that the in-situ polymerized copolymers fully filled up wood cell lumen and also grafted onto wood cell walls, resulting in the blockage of passages for microorganisms and moisture to wood cell walls. Thus, the decay resistance of the wood-polymer composite against brown rot fungus and white rot fungus in terms of weight loss achieved 1.04%~1.33%, improved 95.10%~95.35% than those of untreated Micheliamacclurel wood; and also higher than that of boron-treated wood. The SEM observations presented the remarkable improvement of decay resistance of wood after such treatment, which effectively protected wood from degradation by fungi.
Authors: Chana Prapruddivongs, Narongrit Sombatsompop
Abstract: Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) were compounded with wood flour and triclosan. The wood/PLA composites were then characterized using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and the antibacterial activity was also assessed via plate count agar (PCA) under a wide range of contact times using Escherichia coli (E.coli) as the testing bacteria. The characterization results suggested that the addition of wood flour produced two melting peaks behaviour which resulted in an enlargement of degree of crystallinity (Xc) in the wood/PLA composites. These two metling peaks were probably related with re-crystallization of the PLA by the presence of wood. The antibacterial efficiency of triclosan/PLA was improved considerably by the presence of wood flour, suggesting that the wood particles could act as “anti-bacterial promoter” for the PLA.
Authors: M. Saiful Islam, Sinin Hamdan, Md. Rezaur Rahman
Abstract: Batai (paraserianthes moluccana) tropical wood species was impregnated with three levels of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solutions (25%, 50% and 75%) for composite manufacturing. Manufactured wood polymer composites (WPCs) were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), free-free vibration testing, and the dimensional stability analysis. The dynamic Young’s modulus (Ed) was calculated using the free-free flexural vibration method. Impregnation of PVA solutions into wood samples was confirmed through FTIR and SEM. WPC from 75% PVA solution showed lower water absorption and improved dimensional stability. The fabricated WPC yielded a higher Young’s modulus compared with the raw one.
Authors: Claudia Möhl, Andreas Krombholz
Abstract: Modified wood fibre reinforced polypropylene composites at a wood fibre content of 50 wt. % are prepared using different types of wood fibres (beech wood refiner fibre, mercerised beech wood refiner fibre, mercerised and bleached beech wood refiner fibre as well as beech wood chips, mercerised beech wood chips, mercerised and bleached beech wood chips) to improve the impact resistance of the final composite. Additionally a beech wood refiner fibre-PP composite as well as a beech wood chip-PP composite are mixed with regenerated cellulosic fibres (5 wt. % and 10 wt. %) to further enhance the impact resistance. To increase the interfacial adhesion with the matrix and to improve the dispersion of particles two different coupling agents with contents from 2 wt. % to 8 wt. % are tested with two wood plastic composites (WPC). One is made of beech wood refiner fibres and the other one is produced from beech wood chips.The present study investigated Charpy impact property of wood fibres reinforced polypropylene as a function of fibre modification, content of regenerated cellulosic fibres and coupling agent.From the results it is observed that beech wood refiner fibre-PP composites show better Charpy impact properties than beech wood chips-PP composites. Charpy impact resistance is improved by mixing regenerated cellulose fibres (RCF) and RCF-PP-granule with beech wood refiner fibres and chips. The maximum increase in impact resistance is two times for refiner fibres and 10 % RCF-PP-granule respectively three and a half times for chips and 10 % RCF-PP-granule. By adding coupling agent Charpy impact resistance is nearly doubled for all wood fibre-PP composites.
Authors: Apisit Kositchaiyong, Narongrit Sombatsompop
Abstract: Two commercial fungicides, namely, 3-Iodopropinyl-N-butylcarbamate (IPBC) and Methylbenzimidazole-2-ylcarbamate (Carbendazim) were used to improve anti-fungal properties of poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) and wood/PVC composite (WPVC) materials. Disk diffusion test and dry weight technique, using Aspergillus niger as a testing fungi, were employed for the anti-fungal assessments. The effects of type and content of fungicides on anti-fungal performances were discussed in association with material properties. For material property characterizations, flexural properties, surface contact angle and surface color changes were observed. The results from anti-fungal test by disk diffusion test revealed that addition of IPBC in PVC or WPVC showed much greater anti-fungal performance than that of Carbendazim in PVC or WPVC. The WPVC samples exhibited better anti-fungal performances than the PVC samples. It can be concluded that wood particles could promote the fungicidal effect of the WPVC composites. It was found that type and content of fungicides used did not significantly alter the flexural properties of the materials whereas the presence of wood resulted in an increase of flexural modulus with a decrease in flexural strength. The surface contact and color changes of PVC and WPVC were observed with addition of IPBC, but not found with Carbendazim.
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