Papers by Keyword: Work-Hardening

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Authors: S. Ringeval, Julian H. Driver
Abstract: Multiple forging (MF) can be used to attain large plastic strains in bulk alloys by successive forging along three orthogonal directions to retain the initial sample shape. An original multiple forging technique enabling 3-D cross forging at constant temperature up to 500°C has been applied to two Al alloys (Al-1%Mn and Al-3%Mg-Sc,Zr). Their rheology, texture and microstructure evolution are compared with those obtained in plane strain compression (PSC). The results are interpreted in terms of slip activity behaviour during both deformation modes. They can also be correlated with the contributions of free dislocations and sub-boundaries.
Authors: Ji Luo, Zhi Rui Wang
Abstract: Recently, the necessity to grade grain size to ultrafine and nano scale for understanding the mechanical behavior of these materials has been recognized. However, the nature of such classification has remained unclear. As an example, ultrafine (100 nm -1 μm) and nano (<100 nm) grained FCC metals, compared to their coarse grained counterparts, exhibit a grain size strengthening that may deviate from the Hall-Petch relationship. To explain the mechanism of such deviation, previous dislocation theories seem insufficient. To solve this problem, a critical grain size criterion governing the shift of deformation mechanism is proposed in this work. This model employs an energetic approach; it relates the grain boundary energy density to certain critical energy values; and it permits, for the first time, a quantitative grading of grain sizes. Predictions based on this model were evaluated. The prediction on copper polycrystals of various grain sizes showed a very good agreement with experimental results. It is thus wished that the grain size theory on plastic deformation mechanism could be unified with the dislocation theory. In this study, such unification is attempted by using a parameter defined as the defect energy density. The possibility of such generalization is further reasoned upon the fact that the defect energy approach should be a unique but common form applicable for both dislocations and grain boundaries.
Authors: Anthony D. Rollett, U.F. Kocks
Authors: Maurizio Ferrante
Abstract: It is well known that the low ductility of nanostructured materials seriously impairs their commercial development. In its turn that mechanical property is associated to the work-hardening behaviour and the vast literature on this relationship is a measure of its importance. This paper presents a short review of the basic models of work-hardening, dealing initially with conventional “coarse” grain metals and alloys, then moving to the behaviour of sub-microcrystalline materials within the bounds of Al alloys and Equal Channel Angular Pressing. Finally, the interrelations of tensile properties, work-hardening behaviour and microstructure are illustrated by data obtained on a precipitation and a non-precipitation hardening Al alloys, namely Al-4%Cu and AA3004. Results show that low temperature aging results in higher strength and high work hardening rate, besides high ductility. The effects of precipitation and of annealing heat treatments are discussed.
Authors: Liang Chu, Qing Wei Wang, Yan Bi, Da Sen Bi
Abstract: Based on analyzing the stress-strain characters of material in nosing deformation zone, and considering two influencing factors, i.e. material thickness variation and material work-hardening, according to ignoring and considering the influence of additional bending stress at the entrance of die, and the different forms of work-hardening of metal materials, a new set of mathematical models of deformation force calculated for tube nosing with conical die are set up by utilizing slab method that belongs to one of the theoretic methods solving the problems of metal plastic forming. Furthermore, the scope of the application of every mathematical model of deformation force calculated for tube nosing with conical die is classified from conical die semi-angle and work-hardening of metal material point of view in theory.
Authors: Zheng Jun Liu, Xie Bo Zeng
Abstract: Aiming at improving the impact wear-resistant performance of metals, a new sort of surfacing electrode named TKCE50 was developed in this paper. This electrode is a Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-V alloy system and belongs to iron-base wear-resistant materials. Tests like hardness, wear loss and impact-abrasion test were performed on the samples surfaced with the electrode. The results indicated that TKCE50 had not only good welding technological properties, but also super work-hardening effect and perfect impact wear-resistance. In addition, the work-hardening and wear-resistant mechanisms for this electrode were discussed based on corresponding experimental investigation and theoretical analysis.
Authors: J.B. Li, X.Y. Gai, D.L. Wang, S.Y. Ma, Vincent Ji
Abstract: The work hardening effect of the shot peening affected layer of hardened and low temperature tempered spring steel was investigated using the method for determining the yield strength of a metallic surface with biaxial residual stress. The results show that for the surface layer of the specimens, the microhardness and half-width values of X-ray diffraction lines is decreased, whereas the yield strength is increased during shot peening. Thus, shot peening leads the surface layer of steel in hard state to work hardening instead of work softening.
Authors: A. Muto, Seishi Goto, M. Tagami
Authors: P. Bollók, M. Kozma
Abstract: It is well known that during sliding friction the properties of rubbing surfaces are changed owing to transformations caused by applied loads, friction and wear processes. In the last years many research works were devoted to reveal the properties of the surfaces transformed during the friction and wear at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics in the Department of Machine Design. During these investigations the conditions of developing beneficial transformed surface layers and their operating boundaries were determined by experiments on metal sliding pairs in laboratory. The conditions of evolving large-scale adhesion junctions, scuffing and seizure were investigated on heavy-loaded surfaces at slow sliding velocity. During the experiments hard steel balls slid on dry or lubricated metal disks. Coefficient of friction and wear tracks were measured and structures and damages of sliding surfaces were evaluated using profilometry, SEM and normal microscope photographs, and micro-hardness measurement.
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