Papers by Keyword: X-Ray CT (Computed Tomography)

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Authors: Yasushi Ikeda, Yasuo Nagano, Hiroshi Kawamoto, Naoki Takano
Authors: Chuan Yu Wu, A.C. Bentham, A. Mills
Abstract: Powder compaction is a well-established process for manufacturing a wide range of products, including engineering components and pharmaceutical tablets. During powder compaction, the compacts (green bodies or tablets) produced need to sustain their integrity during the process and possess certain strength. Any defects are hence not tolerable during the production. Therefore, understanding failure mechanisms during powder compaction is of practical significance. In this paper, the mechanisms for one typical failure, capping, during the compaction of pharmaceutical powders were explored. Both experimental and numerical investigations were performed. For the experimental study, an instrumented hydraulic press (a compaction simulator) with an instrumented die has been used, which enable the material properties to be extracted for real pharmaceutical powders. Close attentions have been paid to the occurrence of capping during the compaction. An X-ray Computed Microtomography system has also used to examine the internal failure patterns of the tablets produced. Finite element (FE) methods have also been used to analyse the powder compaction. The experimental and numerical studies have shown that the shear bands developed at the early stage of unloading appear to be responsible for the occurrence of capping. It has also been found that the capping patterns depend on the compact shape.
Authors: Masashi Mukaida, Masashi Neo, Y. Mizuta, Yasushi Ikeda, Takashi Nakamura
Abstract: High resolution X-ray CT is a powerful means for analyzing comprehensive ceramic biomaterials in a living body. The benefit of this method is that morphological and volume changes of implant materials can be evaluated without retrieve of the implant in an animal body, resulting in no killing of the animals and long term evaluation even more than one year. In this study, in situ techniques for observation of calcium phosphate cement is developed. Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) was implanted into a femur and under skin of a rat. The volume and morphology change of the CPC were repeatedly measured using the same rat for more than 12 months. The 3-dimentional (3-D) structures of the CPC were imaged and reconstructed from hundreds of 2-D cross sectional CT images, which were obtained at one time by a 360 degree rotation of the sample. The structure of the CPC was visualized with 3-D, and the volume were numerically analyzed by using a 3-D structure analyzing computer software, which enabled two-value processing and estimation of the quantities of the CPC. Moreover some of the CPC samples were retrieved and were observed by SEM. In the results, the surface of the calcium phosphate cement changed from smooth to jagged with increasing implanted period. The CPC volume implanted into bone was gradually decreased with increasing implanted period. The volume loss was 8 % after 12 months. The CPC volume under skin after 1 month increased by 7 %. After that the volume gradually decreased in next 3 months. Absorption process of CPC in a rat will be discussed.
Authors: Sang Joon Lee, Kwang Mo Kim, Jun Jae Lee
Abstract: NDE (Nondestructive Evaluation) of wood was performed using X-ray CT technique in order to determine the applicability of this technology to ancient wooden buildings in the field. Two main objectives were studied to consider applicability as well as accuracy. First, the most suitable number of radiographs for reconstructing proper X-ray CT images was determined. Secondly, X-ray CT images using SIRT were reconstructed using various numbers of radiographs in order to consider the possible effects of absent projection data in field applications. As a result of this study, 9 radiographs were determined to be the most suitable number for this application. Brown-rotted part in wood was also detected by X-ray CT images using 9 radiographs. It was concluded that even there exists some absent projection data, CT images can be reconstructed with high accuracy.
Authors: Thierry J. Chotard, M.P. Boncoeur-Martel, A. Smith, J.P. Dupuy, Christian Gault
Authors: Nobuhiro Yoshikawa, Shouji Kuzukami, Osamu Kuwazuru
Abstract: A material testing methodology is investigated in line with non-invasive manner using XRay CT images for characterizing biological tissues. Three-dimensional digital image volumes are generated for initial and loaded states. Tentative displacement field is represented by basis function of B-spline. Unknown parameters included in the functions are identified through an inverse problem minimizing error in terms of pixel intensity between actual deformed image volume and virtual one according to the tentative displacement field of B-spline. A constraint of incompressibility affects well for stable and prompt solution search. The proposed methodology is demonstrated in identification problem of three-dimensional displacement field by using an experimental data of compressive specimen.
Authors: Jeong Guk Kim, Sung Tae Kwon, Won Kyung Kim
Abstract: Several nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, including ultrasonic C-scan, X-ray computed tomography (CT), and infrared (IR) thermography, were employed on ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) to illustrate defect information that might effect mechanical behavior and to analyze structural performance of CMCs. Prior to tensile testing, through C-scan and CT analyses results, the qualitative relationship between the relative ultrasonic transmitted amplitude and porosity based on CT was exhibited. An IR camera was used for in-situ monitoring of progressive damages and to determine temperature changes during tensile testing. Moreover, scanning-electron microscopy characterization was used to perform microstructural failure analyses. This paper describes the use of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to facilitate the understanding of tension behavior of CMCs.
Authors: Tadashi Asahina, Insu Jeon, Kiyotaka Katou, Tsutomu Sonoda
Abstract: The cell-structure of highly porous aluminum material prepared by melt foaming technology was investigated under deformation with fine-focus X-ray 3D-CT to make clear the development target porous material for automobile industries with improved reliability. It was confirmed that structures with more fine, more uniform and exclusion peculiar anisotropic pores would make improved mechanical properties of the material.
Authors: Josef Prokop, Libor Švéda, Alexandr Jančárek, Ladislav Pína
Abstract: This paper describes a new nondestructive approach for porosity measurement developed in response to a need for a more accurate porosity measuring method for solid samples. The conventional methods in X-ray CT imaging are based on image segmentation where a threshold is applied at a user-defined value. As a result, the uncertainty in the porosity measurement is introduced. Therefore, the new method, called the grey level method, which reflects the phenomenon of image processing and computation of ration between the volume of voids and the total volume of the entire sample, was considered and improved in term of image noise and artifacts. The volumes of 2D CT image as a surface are achieved by means of integrating the surface with operations relating to image histogram. The porosity value is given from the curve of a porosity distribution. Subsequently, the properties of individual pores were measured and comparison with conventional destructive method of porosity computation was carried out. Also limitations of industrial X-ray CT as well as their accuracy are discussed.
Authors: Yu-an Chen, Shang-qi Zhou, Qin Ren
Abstract: X-ray computer tomography for non-destructively measuring residual stress with depth resolution was suggested to aim at improving of traditional X-ray stress analysis in this paper. Based on higher penetrating capacity of X-ray in low atomic order materials it could non-destructively measure three-dimensional residual stresses and calculate the stress free lattice spacing, d0, by current X-ray stress analyzer with taper slits. The evaluation of reliable results were controlled by three criteria, linear correlation coefficient, R, Poisson’ ratio, ν, and the stress free lattice spacing, d0. Finally, the residual stresses in the axial direction around the weld of arc Beryllium weldment could be calculated by this method.
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