Papers by Keyword: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)

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Authors: Bartosz Handke, Aneta Zima, Zofia Paszkiewicz, Anna Ślósarczyk
Abstract: Calcium phosphates (CaPs): hydroxyapatite (HA) and TCP are common biomaterials used in orthopedic, dental and maxillofacial surgery as bone fillers and also as drug carriers. Studies of the β→α TCP transformation and formation of mono-, bi- or three-phase CaPs materials: βTCP-αTCP-HA are of principal importance. Stability of calcium phosphate ceramics depends on many factors. Our dynamic studies by high temperature XRD measurements showed that monoclinic αTCP was a considerably stable phase after its creation completed at 1200°C. Different phase composition was obtained in technological conditions.
Authors: S. Naamen, H. Ben Rhaiem, A. Ben Haj Amara
Abstract: The intercalation complex of nacrite with an alkali halide (Caesium chloride: CsCl) has been successfully prepared by mixing a CsCl saturated solution with a 8.4Å-hydrated nacrite. The homogeneous nacrite/CsCl complex has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Using an oriented clay aggregate, 10 basal reflections were obtained. The XRD pattern showed basal spacing of 10.5Å with integral series of 00l reflections indicating an ordered stacking of parallel 1:1 layers. A direct method involving a monodimensional electron density projection, along the normal to the layers, is used to determine the number and the position of intercalated compounds. The best agreement between observed and simulated p(Z) (R = 5%) is obtained by placing one Cl- ion at Z=6.7Å; one Cs+ ion at Z=8.3Å and two H O molecules at 6.3 and 7.4Å.
Authors: A. Ben Haj Amara, A. Plançon, J. Ben Brahim, H. Ben Rhaiem
Authors: Yuan Wei Zhang, X.G. Tang, A.X. Kuang, H.L.W. Chan
Abstract: The Calcium modified PbTiO3 ceramics with large piezoelectric anisotropy was poled in consecutive steps. X-ray diffraction (XRD) found that the values of inter-planar spacing, d002 and d200, increased with poling field at initial poling stages. A noticeable drop of the d¬002 and d200 at the coercive field was observed. The residual stresses measured by the  angle tilt method were introduced. The relations of d002-sin2ψ and d¬¬200-sin2ψ at different poling stages were simulated by a mathematic model. The linear terms in the model are related to the macro-stress which may cause an elastic deformation; the exponential term in the model is related to the micro-stress which may cause a plastic deformation by the 90o domain switch. The results show that macro-stress and micro-stress decreased and the decay speed along  angle increased as to the d002 lattice spacing. The residual stresses related to the d200 lattice spacing were almost not changed.
Authors: Takahiro Namazu, Shozo Inoue, Daisuke Ano, Keiji Koterazawa
Abstract: This paper focuses on investigating mechanical properties of micron-thick polycrystalline titanium nitride (TiN) films. We propose a new technique that can directly measure lateral strain of microscale crystalline specimen by X-ray diffraction (XRD) during tensile test. The XRD tensile test can provide not only Young’s modulus but also Poisson’s ratio of TiN films. Micron-thick TiN films were deposited onto both surfaces of single crystal silicon (Si) specimen by r.f. reactive magnetron sputtering. Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of Si specimen obtained by XRD tensile tests were in good agreement with analytical values. TiN films deposited at Ar partial pressure of 0.7Pa had the average values of 290GPa and 0.36 for Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The elastic mechanical properties of TiN films gradually decreased down to 220GPa and 0.29 with increasing Ar partial pressure up to 1.0Pa, regardless of film thickness. The change in the film properties with Ar partial pressure would be attributed to the change in the film density.
Authors: Teresa M. Seixas, Bruno Almeida, Maria H. Mendes, Manuel A. Salgueiro da Silva, José F. Santos, Fernando Almeida, Zenaida Diogo, Augusto B. Lopes, Joaquim M. Vieira
Abstract: In this work, a meteorite sample recovered in Morocco is characterized by detailed petrographic observations in transmitted and reflected light optical microscopy and by using XRD and SEM and it is tentatively classified. VIS/NIR spectral analysis of the same meteorite in a previous study suggested that it is seemingly related to the HAMLET meteorite, which was classified as LL4 chondrite. From the obtained results in the refinement of the analysis of the present study, this meteorite is classified as L4 to L5 chondrite. Composition maps across selected chondrules and in the matrix are presented.
Authors: M. Qin, Vincent Ji, Jiu Hua Xu, J.B. Li, Ke Wei Xu, S.L. Ma
Authors: E. Popova, N. Keller, M. Guyot, M.-C. Brianso, M. Tessier
Authors: Aureo Murador Filho, Dayse Iara dos Santos, Marcos Yukio Kussuda, Camilla dos Santos Zanatta, Jae Geon Kim, Don Qui Shi, Shi Xie Dou
Abstract: Among the researches on preparation and test of nanostructured materials, titanium dioxide and zinc oxide have been the most frequent studied oxides. In order to extend their properties, composites have been prepared using three different methods: Polyol Method, Sol-gel Process and a combination of the two processes (hybrid process). Recent research showed best properties in composite materials than in pure oxides. In this work is presented the preparation and the structural characterization of ZnO-TiO2 composite nanostructures to be tested for their performance in electrocatalysis and in further trial on photovoltaic cells.
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