Papers by Keyword: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)

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Authors: Henning Friis Poulsen, Xing Fu, Erik Knudsen, Erik M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, S. Schmidt
Abstract: 3-Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction (3DXRD) microscopy is a tool for fast and non-destructive characterization of the individual grains, sub-grains and domains inside bulk materials. The method is based on diffraction with highly penetrating hard x-rays, enabling 3D studies of millimeter - centimeter thick specimens. The position, volume, orientation, elastic and plastic strain can be derived for hundreds of grains simultaneously. Furthermore, by applying novel reconstruction methods 3D maps of the grain boundaries can be generated. With the present 3DXRD microscope set-up at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, the spatial resolution is ~ 5 µm, while grains of size 100 nm can be detected. 3DXRD microscopy enables, for the first time, dynamic studies of the individual grains and sub-grains within polycrystalline materials. The methodology is reviewed with emphasis on recent advances in grain mapping. Based on this a series of general 3DXRD approaches are identified for studies of nucleation and growth phenomena such as recovery, recrystallisation and grain growth in metals.
Authors: Matthias Stockmeier, Rainer Hock, Octavian Filip, Boris M. Epelbaum, Albrecht Winnacker, Andreas Magerl
Authors: Ourania Menti Goudouri, Eleana Kontonasaki, Nikolaos Kantiranis, Xanthippi Chatzistavrou, Lambrini Papadopoulou, Petros Koidis, Konstantinos M. Paraskevopoulos
Abstract: Melt derived bioactive glass- porcelain system is reported to be bioactive but with a slow rate of bioactivity. The aim of this work is to fabricate and characterize bioactive glass/dental porcelain composites produced by the sol-gel method. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffractometry (XRD) were used to characterize the fabricated materials. The FTIR spectra and the XRD patterns confirm the presence of both constituents in the mixtures, while the dominant crystal phases in bioactive glass/dental porcelain specimens are leucite and wollastonite.
Authors: N. Pistofidis, G. Vourlias, D. Chaliampalias, F. Stergioudis, Efstathios K. Polychroniadis
Abstract: In the present work the phases of the zinc coatings deposited with hot-dip galvanizing, pack cementation and wire flame spraying are examined with Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The different phases which are observed are identified with the combined results of electron and X-Ray diffraction. From the results it is concluded that pack cementation coatings are consisted by two different layers while hot dip galvanized coatings are composed by the same phases and additionally two extra phases of the Fe-Zn phase diagram. Flame sprayed coatings are composed by pure zinc, in the form of thin lamellae, together with nanocrystaline zinc oxide which is formed from the oxidation of liquid metallic droplets during the spray procedure.
Authors: Andreea Carmen Bărbînţă, Romeo Chelariu, Marcelin Benchea, Carmen Iulia Crimu, Sorin Iacob Strugaru, Corneliu Munteanu
Abstract: Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloys represent a new generation of biomaterials with possible applications in the orthopedic field, being developed in order to eliminate the negative aspects of the current orthopedic biomaterials, which consist mainly in a low biocompatibility with human tissues and high values of modulus of elasticity compared to the human bone. This paper presents a comparative study of new titanium alloys, corresponding to the Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta system: Ti-21Nb-6Zr-15Ta and Ti-25Nb-10Zr-8Ta, which were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and microindentation. The both alloys are classified as near-β alloys. The addition of alloying elements such as Ta, Nb and Zr represents a good solution for lowering modulus of elasticity, which is an important factor for reducing bone resorption and therefore for preventing implant failure.
Authors: Shubhra Mathur, Rishi Vyas, S.N. Dolia, Kanu Sachdev, S.K. Sharma
Abstract: Corrosion studies were carried out using potentiodynamic polarization method on amorphous, nanocrystalline and crystalline states of the alloy Ti60Ni40 in 0.5 M H2SO4 and 0.5 M HNO3 aqueous media at room temperature. The nanocrystalline state of Ti60Ni40 was obtained by removing about 10 μm from the air side surface (crystalline state) by polishing. The presence of nanocrystalline phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found from polarization results that the corrosion current density was higher in the amorphous state than in the nanocrystalline state in both 0.5 M H2SO4 and 0.5 M HNO3 aqueous media. These results are corroborated by the weight loss studies which were carried out in both of these media. Results are discussed in the paper in the light of data reported in the literature on similar type of alloys.
Authors: G. Vourlias, N. Pistofidis, D. Chaliampalias, F. Stergioudis
Abstract: One of the most effective methods for the protection of ferrous substrates from corrosion is zinc hot-dip galvanizing. Although this method has many advantages, it is characterized by a very negative effect on the environment. In the present work Zn coatings were formed with thermal spraying, pack cementation and fluidized bed reactor, which are friendlier to the environment. Their microstructure was characterized with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, while their corrosion performance was estimated with exposure in a salt spray chamber. From this investigation it was deduced that CVD coatings are composed by two layers referring to Γ-Fe11Zn40 and δ-FeZn10 phase of the Fe-Zn phase diagram. By contrast the thermal coatings are very porous and composed by pure Zn. However, the corrosion performance of all coatings is similar. This conclusion is very important because it verifies that hot-dip galvanizing could be replaced by the other coating methods.
Authors: Pedro M. Amaral, Jorge Cruz Fernandes, Luís Guerra Rosa
Abstract: Petrography and X-ray diffraction techniques are used in this work to determine the mineralogical composition of a granite, a gabbro and a quartzite. The experimental difficulties and the results obtained by both methods are described and discussed. The semi-quantitative procedure of XRD analysis used in this work allows an estimate of the relative mineral phase composition of each type of rock. Petrography was found to be crucial in terms of textural analysis.
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