Papers by Keyword: X-Ray Microtomography

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Authors: Michel Suéry, Luc Salvo, Charles Josserond, Marco Di Michiel
Abstract: The evolution of the microstructure of semi-solid Al-Cu alloys has been characterized during isothermal treatments in the semi-solid state by using in-situ X-ray microtomography experiments carried out at ESRF, Grenoble. This work is therefore a continuation of previous experiments reported at the 8th S2P Conference in Limassol. Quantitative data are presented dealing with changes with holding time of the solid volume fraction, of the solid-liquid interface area and of the mean and Gaussian curvatures of the solid phase. Discussion of the results is carried out on the basis of the mechanisms involved in semi-solid systems.
Authors: Sofiane Terzi, Luc Salvo, Michel Suéry, Jérôme Adrien, Éric Maire, Elodie Boller
Abstract: This paper is concerned with an investigation of the deformation behaviour of an Al-Cu alloy during tensile testing in the semi-solid state. It was carried out by fast in-situ X-Ray microtomography at ESRF, Grenoble. Deformation was performed at constant velocity, which was chosen to be small enough so as not to affect the acquisition of the images. It is observed that deformation is accompanied, initially, by some liquid flow from the adjacent regions towards the deformed zone. Then pores form in the liquid films and grow until they occupy a significant part of the cross section of the specimen. Quantification of this phenomenon was carried out thus leading to a better understanding of pore formation in semi-solid mixtures.
Authors: Emilie Ferrié, Jean Yves Buffière, Wolfgang Ludwig
Abstract: In-situ fatigue tests monitored by Synchrotron Radiation X-ray microtomography were carried out in order to visualize the three dimensional (3D) shape and evolution of short cracks in the bulk of a cast Al alloy. After the in-situ fatigue test the sample has been infiltrated with liquid Gallium (Ga) in order to visualize the grain structure of the material. Irregularities of the crack advance along the crack front can clearly be correlated to the grain structure of the material.
Authors: Hiroyuki Toda, Kentaro Uesugi, Yoshio Suzuki, Masakazu Kobayashi
Abstract: X-ray microtomography (XMT) has been utilized for the in-situ observation of various structural materials under external disturbance such as loading. In-situ XMT provides a unique possibility to access the three-dimensional (3D) character of internal microstructure and its time evolution behaviours non-destructively, thereby enabling advanced techniques for measuring local strain distribution. Local strain mapping is readily enabled by processing such high-resolution tomographic images either by the particle tracking technique or the digital image correlation technique. Procedures for tracking microstructural features which have been developed by the authors, have been applied to analyse localised deformation and damage evolution in a material. Typically several tens of thousands of microstructural features, such as particles and pores, are tracked in a tomographic specimen (0.2 - 0.3 mm3 in volume). When a sufficient number of microstructural features is dispersed in 3D space, the Delaunay tessellation algorithm is used to obtain local strain distribution. With these techniques, 3D strain fields can be measured with reasonable accuracy. Even local crack driving forces, such as local variations in the stress intensity factor, crack tip opening displacement and J integral along a crack front line, can be measured from discrete crack tip displacement fields.
Authors: Guo Chao Gu, Raphaël Pesci, Eric Becker, Laurent Langlois, Régis Bigot
Abstract: Thixoforging, one variant of semi-solid metal processing in which the metallic alloys are processed at low liquid fraction (0.1< Fl < 0.3), is used to produce complex parts with high mechanical properties. Steel thixoforging faces more challenges as compared to that of low melting point materials due to high processing temperature and lack of understanding of the thermomechanical behavior of materials in the given conditions. It is crucial to study the microstructure at the semi-solid state to improve the understanding of the thixoforging process since the material behavior strongly depends on main parameters: the liquid fraction, its distribution as well as the coherence of the solid skeleton. The microstructure has a great influence on the viscosity of the material, on the flows and finally on the final shape and mechanical properties of the thixoforged parts. Here, the characterization of the volume percentage and distribution of liquid fraction at the semi-solid state with high energy 3D X-ray microtomography was investigated on M2 steel grade as a ‘model’ alloy. The obtained results have been compared to 2D observations using EDS technique in SEM on heated and quenched specimens. They showed a good correlation making both approaches very efficient for the study of the liquid zones at the semi-solid state.
Authors: Czesław Bywalski, Magdalena Rajczakowska, Łukasz Sadowski
Abstract: This paper deals with the use of X-ray microtomography in evaluating the porosity of barrage lock concrete. The main parts of the lock were built in the years 1914-1917. Its high and low heads were founded on 2.70 m thick concrete slabs. Samples for laboratory tests were taken by core drilling at half of the slab thickness. The compressive strength of the concrete was determined and the porosity of the concrete was evaluated using X-ray microtomography. The compressive strength values ranged from 17.3 to 37.3 MPa. The porosity examination results are compared with the destructively determined concrete compressive strength values.
Authors: Julian R. Jones, Peter D. Lee
Abstract: Bone tissue has evolved into hierarchical three-dimensional structures with dimensions ranging from nanometres to metres. The structure varies depending on the site in the body, which is dictated by the loading environment. Medically, bone is one of the most replaced body parts (second only to blood) but replicating these complex living hierarchical structures for the purpose of regenerating defective bone is a challenge that has yet to be overcome. A temporary template (scaffold) is needed that matches the hierarchical structure of native bone as closely as possible that is available ‘off the shelf’ for surgeons to use. After implantation the scaffold must bond to bone and stimulate not only three dimensional (3D) bone growth, but also vascularisation to feed the new bone. There are many engineering design criteria for a successful bone scaffold and bioactive glass foam scaffolds have been developed that can fulfil most of them, as they have a hierarchical porous structure, they can bond to bone, and they release soluble silica species and calcium ions that have been found to up-regulate seven families of genes in osteogenic cells. Other ions have also been incorporated to combat infection and to counteract osteoporosis. Their tailorable hierarchical structure consists of highly interconnected open spherical macropores, further, because the glass is sol-gel derived, the entire structure is nanoporous. The macropores are critical for bone and blood vessel growth, the nanopores for tailoring degradation rates and protein adsorption and for cell attachment. This chapter describes the optimised sol-gel foaming process and how bone cells respond to them. Whatever type of scaffold is used for bone regeneration, it is critically important to be able to quantify the hierarchial pore structure. The nanopore size can be quantified using gas sorption, but to obtain full information of the macropore structure, imaging must be done using X-ray microtomography and the resulting images must be quantified via 3D image analysis. These techniques are reviewed.
Authors: Yasuo Yamada, Takumi Banno, Zhen Kai Xie, Cui E Wen
Abstract: The mechanical properties of a closed-cell aluminium foam were investigated by compressive tests, and the deformation behaviours of the aluminium foams were studied using Xray microtomography. The results indicate that the deformation of the aluminium foams under compressive loading was localized in narrow continuous deformation bands having widths of order of a cell diameter. The cells in the deformation bands collapsed by a mixed deformation mechanism, which includes mainly bending and minor buckling and yielding. Different fractions of the three deformation modes led to variations in the peak stress and energy absorption for different foam samples with the same density. It was also found that the cell morphology affects the deformation mechanism significantly, whilst the cell size shows little influence.
Authors: I. Justice, P. Anderson, G. Davis, B. Derby, James Elliott
Authors: Guo Chao Gu, Raphaël Pesci, Eric Becker, Laurent Langlois, Régis Bigot
Abstract: The distribution of liquid at the semi solid state is one of the most important parameters for steel thixoforging. It has a great influence on the viscosity of the material, on the flows and finally on the final shape and mechanical properties of the thixoforged parts. Both ex situ and in situ 3D X-ray microtomography characterizations have been carried out to determine the quantity and localization of liquid at high temperature of M2 steel slugs. Microtomography was first performed ex situ at room temperature on samples heated and quenched from semi-solid state. The specimens were also scanned in situ directly at high temperature. The obtained results have been compared to 2D observations using EDS technique in SEM on heated and quenched specimens. They showed a good correlation making both approaches very efficient for the study of the liquid zones at the semi-solid state
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