Papers by Keyword: X-Ray Radiography

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Authors: Henri Nguyen-Thi, Jiang Wang, Georges Salloum-Abou-Jaoude, Guillaume Reinhart, Imants Kaldre, Nathalie Mangelinck, Zhong Ming Ren, Leonids Buligins, Andris Bojarevics, Yves Fautrelle, Olga Budenkova, Tamzin Lafford
Abstract: It is well known that the application of a magnetic field during the growth process can have pronounced effects on cast material structures and their properties, so that magnetic fields have been widely applied since the 1950s. In the case of a permanent magnetic field, some recent results revealed a dual effect on the liquid metal flow. 1: the magnetic field has a selective damping action on the flow at the scale of the crucible, due to the Lorentz force; 2: the interaction of thermo-electro-magnetic (TEM) currents in the close vicinity of the solid-liquid interface with the applied magnetic field leads to the generation of electromagnetic forces, which act both on the liquid and on the solid at the scale of the microstructure. We present an experimental investigation of the TEM forces induced by a permanent magnetic field during columnar and equiaxed solidification of Al-4wt%Cu. In situ visualization was carried out by means of synchrotron X-ray radiography, which is a method of choice for studying dynamic phenomena. It was shown that the TEM forces were at the origin of a motion of dendritic particles, perpendicular to the direction of gravity. A heuristic analysis allowed us to estimate the fluid velocities and the velocities of the solid particles, and a good agreement was achieved with the experimental data. Similar observations were also made during equiaxed growth in a temperature gradient. The in situ observation of the grain trajectories for various values of the temperature gradient demonstrated that gravity and TEM forces were the driving forces which controlled the grain motion.
Authors: Sang Joon Lee, Kwang Mo Kim, Jun Jae Lee
Abstract: NDE (Nondestructive Evaluation) of wood was performed using X-ray CT technique in order to determine the applicability of this technology to ancient wooden buildings in the field. Two main objectives were studied to consider applicability as well as accuracy. First, the most suitable number of radiographs for reconstructing proper X-ray CT images was determined. Secondly, X-ray CT images using SIRT were reconstructed using various numbers of radiographs in order to consider the possible effects of absent projection data in field applications. As a result of this study, 9 radiographs were determined to be the most suitable number for this application. Brown-rotted part in wood was also detected by X-ray CT images using 9 radiographs. It was concluded that even there exists some absent projection data, CT images can be reconstructed with high accuracy.
Authors: Axel Griesche, Bo Zhang, Jürgen Horbach, Andreas Meyer
Abstract: We make use of a novel X-ray radiography method to measure chemical diffusion in capillaries in binary Al-Ni melts. Data are compared to self diffusion coefficients of Ni obtained by quasielastic neutron scattering as well as diffusion and thermodynamic data obtained by molecular dynamic simulations. Interdiffusion compared to self diffusion is enhanced with a maximum at Al40Ni60. We show that this enhancement is caused by thermodynamic forces as described by the Darken-Manning equation. In liquid Al-Ni alloys the Manning factor that is smaller than one can be attributed to collective cross correlations.
Authors: Georges Salloum-Abou-Jaoude, Henri Nguyen-Thi, Guillaume Reinhart, Ragnvald H. Mathiesen, Gerhard Zimmermann, Daniela Voss
Abstract: In the frame of ESA-MAP (Microgravity Application Promotion) project entitled XRMON (In situ X-Ray MONitoring of advanced metallurgical processes under microgravity and terrestrial conditions), a microgravity (μg) experiment in the XRMON-GF (Gradient Furnace) setup was successfully launched in 2012 on board MASER 12 sounding rocket. During this experiment, in situ and real time observations of the formation of the solidification microstructures in diffusive conditions were carried out for the first time by using X-ray radiography. In addition, two reference experiments with the same control parameters but in ground-based conditions were performed to enable us a direct comparison with the μg experiment and therefore to enlighten the effects of gravity upon microstructure formation. This communication reports on fragmentation phenomenon observed during those experiments. For 1g upward solidification, fragmentations mainly take place in the upper part of the mushy zone. After their detachments, dendrite fragments are carried away by buoyancy force in the bulk liquid where they are gradually remelted. For μg experiment and horizontal solidification, this type of fragmentation is not observed. However, a great number of fragmentations are surprisingly revealed by in situ observation in the deep part of the mushy zone, when the liquid fraction is very small. Moreover, as soon as they are detached, the dendrite fragments move toward the cold part of the mushy zone, even in the case of μg experiment. The observations suggest that sample shrinkage may be at the origin of this fragment motion.
Authors: Guillaume Reinhart, Henri Nguyen-Thi, J. Gastaldi, Bernard Billia, Nathalie Mangelinck-Noël, Thomas Schenk, J. Härtwig, J. Baruchel
Abstract: Solidification is a dynamic phenomena and, as a consequence, it is of major interest to be able to investigate this process by in situ and real time observation. With synchrotron sources, this can be achieved by applying X-ray Imaging techniques (Radiography and Topography). Hence it is possible to follow the dynamical selection of solidification pattern on metallic alloys and to observe strain effects during growth process. In this paper, we present results obtained by using separately the two imaging techniques for the study of the microstructure formation during Al – Ni alloys solidification.
Authors: Axel Griesche, Bo Zhang, Jürgen Horbach, Andreas Meyer
Abstract: A novel X-ray radiography method is used to measure chemical diffusion in a long-capillary in liquid Al95Ni5 at.-%. Molecular dynamics simulations provide interdiffusion coefficients and thermodynamic factors for the whole composition range in Al-Ni. The data are compared to literature data in Sb-Sn and Ag-Sn. The relation between interdiffusion coefficient and thermodynamic forces is discussed in the context of the Darken equation. In systems with common ordering tendency (Al-Ni, Sb-Sn) the thermodynamic factor is larger than one and enhances interdiffusion. In systems with common demixing tendency (Ag-Sn) the thermodynamic factor is smaller than one and reduces interdiffusion.
Authors: Marc Engelhardt, Andreas Meyer, F. Yang, G.G. Simeoni, Florian Kargl
Abstract: Self-and chemical diffusion coefficients are reported for molten Al-Ag on the Al-rich side of the phase diagram for Ag concentrations of up to 45at% and for pure liquid Ag. Temperature dependent Ag self-diffusion coefficients were obtained using quasi-elastic neutron scattering. Chemical diffusion coefficients were measured in situ by means of X-ray radiography of a long-capillary furnace. A detailed error analysis for the long-capillary experiments is reported. It is shown that perturbing effects can be detected and that accurate chemical diffusion coefficients can be measured with high precision. It is demonstrated based on Al-Ag20at% that the Darken equation appears to be valid for this system with a thermodynamic factor lower than unity. Furthermore, in Al-Ag it appears that Ag self-diffusion for small Ag concentrations is faster than Al-self-diffusion in liquid Al. This contrasts with observations made for other Al-based melts like Al-Ni and Al-Cu.
Authors: G. Poletti, F. Orsini, D. Batani
Abstract: Soft X-ray Contact Microscopy (SXCM) of Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes wit typical length 800 μm and diameter 30 μm has been performed using the PALS laser source of wavelength λ = 1.314 μm and pulse duration τ (FWHM) = 400 ps. Pulsed soft X-rays were generated using molybdenum and gold targets with laser intensities I ≥ 1014 W/cm2. Images have been recorded on PMMA photo resists and analyzed using an atomic force microscope operating in contact mode. Cuticle features and several internal organs have been identified in the SXCM images including lateral field, cuticle annuli, pharynx, and hypodermal and neuronal cell nuclei.
Authors: Ana M. Amaro, Paulo N.B. Reis, A.G. Magalhães, Marcelo F.S.F. de Moura
Abstract: The aim of present work is to study the influence of the impactor diameter and boundary conditions on low velocity impact on carbon-fibre-reinforced epoxy laminates. Experimental tests were performed on [04,904]s laminates, using a drop weight-testing machine. Circular plates were tested under low velocity impacts for two diameters of the hemispherical impactor, 12.7 mm and 20 mm, and considering similar impact energies, 2.6 J for the first impactor and 3 J for the second one. Rectangular and square plates were analysed under low velocity impacts with different boundary conditions. The impacted plates were inspected by X-radiography. Numerical simulations were also performed considering interface finite elements compatible with three-dimensional solid elements including a cohesive mixed-mode damage model, which allows to model delamination between layers. The impact tests showed that both the impactor’s diameter and boundary conditions have influence on the delaminated area. Good agreement between experimental and numerical analysis for shape, orientation and size of damage was obtained.
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