Papers by Keyword: Yield Locus

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Authors: Marion Merklein, Hinnerk Hagenah, Markus Kaupper, Adam Schaub
Abstract: Titanium alloys, such as Ti-6Al-4V, offer favorable characteristics as significant strength, biocompatibility and metallurgical stability at elevated temperatures. These advantages afford the application of parts out of Ti-6Al-4V in a wide field within aerospace, astronautic and medical technologies. Most applied shaping operations for parts out of titanium alloys are forging, casting, forming and machining. In order to develop and improve forming operations numerical simulations are applied during preprocessing. For that purpose mechanical properties of the material such as yield stress and Lankford parameter have to be determined. Due to the two-phase (α + β) microstructure of Ti-6Al-4V, forming operations have to be carried out at elevated temperatures to reduce the required forming force and extend forming limits. Taking the temperature and stress state dependency of the material into consideration, uniaxial tensile and compression tests are accomplished at elevated temperatures, ranging from 400 to 600 °C. Furthermore, the experimentally determined yield stress and Lankford parameter are approximated with the yield loci model proposed by Barlat 2000. The model predicts the flow response of the material, thus provides input data for the finite element analysis of forming processes at different temperature levels.
Authors: Tomoyuki Hakoyama, Toshihiko Kuwabara
Abstract: Deformation behavior of high strength steel with a tensile strength of 590 MPa under biaxial tension was investigated for a work equivalent plastic strain range of 0.002 0.16. The test material was bent and laser welded to fabricate a tubular specimen with an inner diameter of 44.6mm and wall thickness of 1.2 mm. Using a servo-controlled tension-internal pressure testing machine, many linear stress paths in the first quadrant of stress space were applied to the tubular specimens. Moreover, biaxial tensile tests using a cruciform specimen were performed to precisely measure the deformation behavior of the test material for a small strain range following initial yielding. True stress-true plastic strain curves, contours of plastic work in stress space and the directions of plastic strain rates were measured and compared with those calculated using selected yield functions. The plastic deformation behavior up to an equivalent plastic strain of 0.16 was successfully measured. The Yld2000-2d yield function most closely predicts the general work contour trends and the directions of plastic strain rates of the test material.
Authors: Olaf Engler, Yuguo An
Abstract: The control of the plastic anisotropy during forming of a metallic sheet requires detailed knowledge on its microstructure and, especially, crystallographic texture. In the present paper the correlation of texture and plastic anisotropy in the Al-Mg Alloy AA 5005 is studied. Two different material states with different textures are compared, namely 1.7 mm thick soft-annealed material (O-temper) and 1.0 mm cold rolled strip (state H14). Tensile tests were carried out at 0°, 45° and 90° with respect to the sheet rolling direction and the resulting in-plane anisotropy in yield strength, work hardening and strain rate ratios (r-values) was determined. On a more general approach, texture-derived yield loci are compared with both phenomenological yield functions and experimental data.
Authors: Hyo Tae Jeong, Dong Nyung Lee, Kyu Hwan Oh
Authors: Andrea Ghiotti, Stefania Bruschi, Paolo F. Bariani
Abstract: The constant demand of increasing performances and safety in vehicle industry has led significant innovations in the materials used in sheet metal forming processes. In particular, multiphase steels and lightweight alloys have known higher and higher importance, thanks to the development of new stamping processes at elevated temperatures, which guarantee, at the same time, better formability, lower springback and more accurate micro-structural control in the formed sheets. With respect to these aspects, the correct design and optimization of the new processes cannot prescind of the mechanical characterization of materials in biaxial stress conditions, especially when it strongly varies according to the stress and temperature. In this paper, a novel experimental set-up is presented for determining the in-plane yield locus of sheet metals at elevated temperatures. A cruciform specimen, whose geometry was optimized by numerical simulation, is used for the study of the yield locus in the range of biaxial tensile stresses. The test machine concept is based on punch-wedge mechanism, which uses the vertical movement of the press for the deformation of the specimen along two perpendicular axes. In the first part of the paper, the optimization of the cruciform specimen by thermo-mechanical FE analyses is outlined. Details on the experimental set-up are then given with the description of the apparatus, the measurement of plastic strains and the heating system for tests at elevated temperatures.
Authors: M. Premkumar, V.S. Himabindu, S. Banumathy, A.K. Bhattacharjee, A.K. Singh
Abstract: Present work describes the evolution of texture during different modes of deformation by cold rolling of a Gum metal or multifunctional β titanium alloy. The starting and cold rolled materials exhibit the presence of β and β with small amount of stress induced martensitic (α˝) phases, respectively. The development of texture has been explained in terms of α and γ fibres. The bulk hardness appears to be independent of modes of deformation by cold rolling. The yield surfaces of as received and solution treated samples exhibit marked anisotropy which persists during different modes of deformation by rolling.
Authors: Tetsuo Naka, Yasuhide Nakayama, Takeshi Uemori, Ryutaro Hino, Fusahito Yoshida
Authors: Tetsuo Naka, Masanori Hayakashi, Yasuhide Nakayama, Takeshi Uemori, Masahide Kohzu, Kenji Higashi, Fusahito Yoshida
Abstract: The yield locus of type AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet was obtained by performing biaxial tensile tests, using cruciform specimens, at temperatures of 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 P o PC at strain rates of 10P -2 P, 10P -3 P and 10P -4 PsP -1 P. Based on the experimental results, the effects of strain-rate and temperature on the yield locus was discussed. The size of yield locus drastically decreased with increasing temperature and decreased with decreasing strain-rate. Neither von Mises’s criterion or Hill’s can well predict the shape of the yield locus of this sheet metal. Instead of these quadratic yield functions, the yield criterion of Logan-Hosford or Barlat is a better choice for the accurate description of biaxial stress-strain responses at high temperature.
Authors: Kazuhiro Ichikawa, Toshihiko Kuwabara, Sam Coppieters
Abstract: The multiaxial plastic deformation behavior of a cold rolled interstitial-free steel sheet with a thickness of 0.65 mm was measured using a servo-controlled multiaxial tube expansion testing machine for the range of strain from initial yield to fracture. Tubular specimens were fabricated from the sheet sample by roller bending and laser welding. Many linear stress paths in the first quadrant of stress space were applied to the tubular specimens to measure the contours of plastic work in stress space up to an equivalent plastic strain of 0.289 along with the directions of plastic strain rates. The test material exhibited differential hardening (DWH). A material modeling method for reproducing the DWH in a finite element simulation has been developed. Hydraulic bulge forming simulation results based on the DWH model had a closer agreement with the experimental results than those calculated using the isotropic hardening models with selected yield functions.
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