Electroless Ni-P and Ni-P-Al2O3 composite coatings on low carbon steel (Q235) sheets were prepared by adopting optimum plating process. The cross-section morphology and structure as well as the phase transformation of the composite coatings were studied by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffraction(XRD). It was shown that the Al2O3 particles homogeneously dispersed in the entire Ni-P film matrix, and the structure of Ni-P-Al2O3 composite coatings as deposited was amorphous. The corrosion behaviors were evaluated by electrochemical tests. The experimental results indicated that the corrosion resistance of Ni-P-Al2O3 coatings was superior to Ni-P coatings due to the effect of Al2O3 particles. In addition, the oxidation resistance test, which was carried out by using oxidation weight method, showed that ternary Ni-P-Al2O3 composite coating had a better oxidation resistance than Ni-P coating.