The evaluation on environmental corrosion damage of steel domes is carried out in this study through an integration of knowledge in material science and structural analysis. The refined exponential model for estimating corrosion of steel materials is presented based on long-term experimental data available. The formula for relating structural natural frequency sensitivity to structural member thickness is then derived to assess the sensitivity of natural frequency to variation of member thickness due to corrosion. The nonlinear static analysis is conducted to evaluate effects of atmospheric corrosion on the stress of structural members and the safety of steel space structures. A real steel dome built in China is taken as the case study to examine the feasibility of the proposed approach and to assess the potential corrosion damage to the structure..