Road surface adhesion condition identification has major impact on playing the various active safety automotive electronic control devices’ performance as much as possible, the vehicle model with 7 degrees of freedom is established with the application of magic formula tire model and engine model in this paper. By comparing the real-time vehicle dynamic parameters with 6 kinds of typical road characteristics when a vehicle accelerates or brakes, the current road surface type is determined. A road surface identification simulation is carried out when an automobile accelerates on uniform road and brakes on split road by using MATLAB/Simulink software. Finally, a bench test is done to prove the validity of this approach. It is showed by the simulation results that the actual road surface type and the identified road surface type are in good agreement. It can be used for active safety automotive electronic control devices’ road surface identification.