Economic and Environmental Assessment of Redmud as Aggregate in Cement Clinker Production
A cost combined life cycle assessment was carried out to estimate the economic and environmental impact of redmud as aggregate in cement production. Results showed that the raw materials, transport, electricity and coal had the highest contribution to overall cost, while coal production and direct emissions represented the dominant contribution to overall environment impact. Improving energy and raw material efficiency and minimizing raw materials transport distance are the efficient way to minimize overall environmental and economic impacts.
J. M. Hong et al., "Economic and Environmental Assessment of Redmud as Aggregate in Cement Clinker Production", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vols. 90-93, pp. 3254-3257, 2011