The dynamic tension of synchronous belt and pulleys forces are obtained by analyzing the dynamic characteristics of timing drive system of a diesel based on muti-body dynamics. The effects of crankshaft speed fluctuation and other excitations on the dynamics characteristics of synchronous belt are illustrated. After the analysis, it is found that crankshaft speed fluctuation has a great influence on the linear and transversal vibrations of synchronous belt. Comparing the simulation results of the original timing system and the one optimized, it is found that the modal frequency of synchronous belt depends on its span. Therefore it is important to control the span of belt and arrange the tensioner pulley properly for timing system design.