An experimental study of low-velocity impact characteristics and strength after impact was carried out on both woven fiber-reinforced resin matrix composites and woven fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites. The test specimens were impacted using a dropped-weight impact test apparatus with an instrumented spherical tip. Ultrasonic C-scan was used in nondestructive testing to characterize and quantify the impact damage. Much more damage of ceramic matrix composites than that of resin matrix composites occur and process in loading stage. The peak load of resin matrix composites is higher than that of ceramic matrix composites. According to the results of observing optical photographs and C-scan images, the damage area of ceramic matrix composites is greater than that of resin matrix composites and the difference increases as the energy increases. Damage resistance of ceramic matrix composites is lower than that of resin matrix composites, but damage tolerance of ceramic matrix composites is higher than that of resin matrix composites.