The use of high-strength composites in the reinforcement of structural timber has been documented to enhance the strength and stiffness of wood structural members. Global reinforcement is applied over the entire surface of the reinforced member. Local reinforcement is a targeted strengthening of highly-stressed zones susceptible to failure. Both types of reinforcement enhance the capacity of the reinforced members and mitigate brittle failure modes. This paper presents an overview of the application of fiber-based composites in the reinforcement of beams, columns and connections of timber structures and discusses the state-of-the-art technologies in reinforcement. The applications are illustrated on the reinforcement of beams, arches, frames and beam-to-column connections.