The growth process of synthetic diamond single crystals under high-pressure and high-temperature (HPHT) was investigated using acoustic emission (AE) technique. And AE parameters corresponding to growth process were analyzed. However, the AE features of diamond growth are relativelyweak and easily obscured by other AE sources. So the fast Fourier transformation (FFT) was used to calculate the frequency spectra of AE signals for identifying different AE sources. The results showed that the variation of AE counts and energy is in a good agreement with the formation process of synthetic diamond crystals. And the AE signals pronounced from diamond growth are concentrated in the frequency range from 100 to 250 kHz. Thus, AE technique is an effective way to monitor and study the diamond growth, and the frequency analysis can be a useful way to identify different AE sources.