The effect of machining conditions on the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) strength of PEEK polymer bearings was investigated. RCF tests were carried out by using bearings machined by different conditions. The surface profile and roughness were observed before and after testing by laser confocal microscope. Pitting and cracking were associated with the different initial surface conditions. From the obtained results, we found that the RCF strength of machined surfaces decreases when the surface becomes rougher.