The different dilatometric curves of continuous cooling transformation with the different cooling rates were determined by means of Gleeble-2000 thermal simulation machine. The CCT curve of heavy rail steel was obtained by measuring the dilatometric curves and metallographic analysis. And the effects and mechanisms of chromium on the phases transformation of heavy rail steel were investigated. It is found that, the heavy rail steel only takes place pearlite and martensite transformation during continuous cooling. The CCT curve of heavy rail steel is moved right with increasing chromium content, which indicates that chromium can obviously improve the stability of super cooled austenite and delay the pearlite transformation. When the content of chromium is increased from 0.21% to 0.40%, the shortest incubation time of pearlite transformation is increased from 25s to 52s. When the cooling rate ≤ 5°C s-1, with increasing chromium content, both starting and finishing temperatures of pearlite transformation are decreased at different extent, meanwhile the pearlite is refined. In addition, when the content of chromium is increased from 0.21% to 0.40%, the critical cooling rate of quenching is decreased from 15°C s-1 to 7°C s-1.